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How chromosomes unite p.568

The way in which chromosomes come together within a single nucleus after cell division has now been shown to involve a small DNA-binding protein named BAF, which might help to join chromosomes with one another.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07439-7

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Large quantum systems tamed p.569

Quantum-computing devices can be more powerful than their classical counterparts, but controlling large quantum systems is difficult. Two studies report work that overcomes this challenge.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07438-8

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A high-pressure situation for bacteria p.571

Analyses in mice suggest that dietary salt increases blood pressure partly by affecting some of the microbes that inhabit the gut. The implications of this work for hypertension warrant further study in humans.

doi: 10.1038/nature24760

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Contactless health-care sensing p.572

A system for monitoring a person’s vital signs — such as their blood pressure and heart rate — offers many advantages over currently used technologies, including enhanced sensing capabilities, comfort and convenience.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07434-y

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Inequality has deep roots in Eurasia p.573

A study of 64 archaeological sites across four continents shows that the growth of agricultural and political systems provoked economic disparities, more so in Eurasia than in North America.

doi: 10.1038/nature24758

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Methane upgraded by rhodium p.575

Rhodium catalysts have been developed that can be tuned to produce two different products from methane. The findings could aid the development of industrial processes that exploit this abundant resource.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07437-9

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Bulky tether proteins aid membrane fusion p.576

The energy source that drives vesicle fusion with a target organelle in vivo has been unclear. It emerges that proteins that tether fusing structures together also decrease the energy needed for the final fusion step.

doi: 10.1038/nature24754

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Articles

Probing many-body dynamics on a 51-atom quantum simulator p.579

Programmable quantum simulations of many-body systems are demonstrated using a reconfigurable array of 51 individually trapped cold atoms with strong, coherent interactions controlled via excitation to Rydberg states.

Hannes Bernien, Sylvain Schwartz, Alexander Keesling, Harry Levine, Ahmed Omran, Hannes Pichler, Soonwon Choi, Alexander S. Zibrov, Manuel Endres, Markus Greiner + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature24622

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Salt-responsive gut commensal modulates TH17 axis and disease p.585

High salt intake changed the gut microbiome and increased TH17 cell numbers in mice, and reduced intestinal survival of Lactobacillus species, increased the number of TH17 cells and increased blood pressure in humans.

Nicola Wilck, Mariana G. Matus, Sean M. Kearney, Scott W. Olesen, Kristoffer Forslund, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, Stefanie Haase, Anja Mähler, András Balogh, Lajos Markó + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature24628

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Mechanism of tandem duplication formation in BRCA1-mutant cells p.590

BRCA1, but not BRCA2, suppresses the formation of tandem duplications at stalled replication forks in primary mammalian cells.

Nicholas A. Willis, Richard L. Frock, Francesca Menghi, Erin E. Duffey, Arvind Panday, Virginia Camacho, E. Paul Hasty, Edison T. Liu, Frederick W. Alt & Ralph Scully

doi: 10.1038/nature24477

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Letters

Halogens in chondritic meteorites and terrestrial accretion p.614

Halogen abundances in chondrites are 6 to 37 times lower than previously reported, which is consistent with the low abundances of these elements found in Earth.

Patricia L. Clay, Ray Burgess, Henner Busemann, Lorraine Ruzié-Hamilton, Bastian Joachim, James M. D. Day & Christopher J. Ballentine

doi: 10.1038/nature24625

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Greater post-Neolithic wealth disparities in Eurasia than in North America and Mesoamerica p.619

Analyses of house-size distributions in the Old and New World showed that wealth disparities increased with the domestication of plants and animals and with increased sociopolitical scale.

Timothy A. Kohler, Michael E. Smith, Amy Bogaard, Gary M. Feinman, Christian E. Peterson, Alleen Betzenhauser, Matthew Pailes, Elizabeth C. Stone, Anna Marie Prentiss, Timothy J. Dennehy + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature24646

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NFS1 undergoes positive selection in lung tumours and protects cells from ferroptosis p.639

Cancers growing in high-oxygen environments, such as lung adenocarcinomas, select for the iron–sulfur cluster synthesizing enzyme NFS1 to support malignant proliferation and to protect from oxidative damage.

Samantha W. Alvarez, Vladislav O. Sviderskiy, Erdem M. Terzi, Thales Papagiannakopoulos, Andre L. Moreira, Sylvia Adams, David M. Sabatini, Kıvanç Birsoy & Richard Possemato

doi: 10.1038/nature24637

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A semi-synthetic organism that stores and retrieves increased genetic information p.644

A modified Escherichia coli is used to demonstrate that semi-synthetic organisms can use non-natural hydrophobic base pairs to genetically encode for the incorporation of non-canonical amino acids into proteins.

Yorke Zhang, Jerod L. Ptacin, Emil C. Fischer, Hans R. Aerni, Carolina E. Caffaro, Kristine San Jose, Aaron W. Feldman, Court R. Turner & Floyd E. Romesberg

doi: 10.1038/nature24659

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