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A golden binary p.36

The discovery of gravitational waves from a neutron-star merger and the detection of the event across the electromagnetic spectrum give insight into many aspects of gravity and astrophysics. See Letter p.64, p.67, p.71, p.75 & p.80

M. Coleman Miller

doi: 10.1038/nature24153

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The surprising history of an antioxidant p.37

What came first: oxygen-producing photosynthesis, or compounds that protect cells from oxygen-induced damage? It emerges that one such compound might have been produced in microbes before Earth's oxygenation.

Mark W. Ruszczycky & Hung-wen Liu

doi: 10.1038/551037a

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How to build a cohesive genome in 3D p.38

Removing the protein complex cohesin from chromosomes destroys one layer of the genome's 3D structure but leaves another intact. Genome structure is therefore built by independent processes that work together. See Letter p.51

Rachel Patton McCord

doi: 10.1038/nature24145

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Quarks fuse to release energy p.40

In nuclear fusion, energy is produced by the rearrangement of protons and neutrons. The discovery of an analogue of this process involving particles called quarks has implications for both nuclear and particle physics. See Letter p.89

Gerald A. Miller

doi: 10.1038/551040a

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A change of fate for nerve repair p.41

Schwann cells support neuronal signalling. The discovery that these cells become dramatically reprogrammed after nerve injury, adopting migratory characteristics that promote repair, highlights the plasticity of mature cell types.

Robert H. Miller

doi: 10.1038/551041a

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No escape from the tangled bank p.42

Ecological interactions emerge spontaneously in an experimental study of bacterial populations cultured for 60,000 generations, and sustain rapid evolution by natural selection. See Letter p.45

Joshua B. Plotkin

doi: 10.1038/nature24152

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Articles

Two independent modes of chromatin organization revealed by cohesin removal p.51

Depletion of chromosome-associated cohesin leads to loss of topologically associating domains in interphase chromosomes, without affecting segregation into compartments, and instead, it unmasks a finer compartment structure that reflects local chromatin and transcriptional activity.

Wibke Schwarzer, Nezar Abdennur, Anton Goloborodko, Aleksandra Pekowska, Geoffrey Fudenberg, Yann Loe-Mie, Nuno A Fonseca, Wolfgang Huber, Christian H. Haering, Leonid Mirny + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature24281

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Structure of phycobilisome from the red alga Griffithsia pacifica p.57

Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy is used to resolve the structure of the phycobilisome, a 16.8-megadalton light-harvesting megacomplex, from the red alga Griffithsia pacifica at a resolution of 3.5 Å.

Jun Zhang, Jianfei Ma, Desheng Liu, Song Qin, Shan Sun, Jindong Zhao & Sen-Fang Sui

doi: 10.1038/nature24278

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Letters

Optical emission from a kilonova following a gravitational-wave-detected neutron-star merger p.64

Optical to near-infrared observations of a transient coincident with the detection of the gravitational-wave signature of a binary neutron-star merger and a low-luminosity short-duration γ-ray burst are presented and modelled.

Iair Arcavi, Griffin Hosseinzadeh, D. Andrew Howell, Curtis McCully, Dovi Poznanski, Daniel Kasen, Jennifer Barnes, Michael Zaltzman, Sergiy Vasylyev, Dan Maoz + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature24291

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Spectroscopic identification of r-process nucleosynthesis in a double neutron-star merger p.67

Observations of the transient associated with the gravitational-wave event GW170817 and γ-ray burst GRB 170817A reveal a bright kilonova with fast-moving ejecta, including lanthanides synthesized by rapid neutron capture.

E. Pian, P. D’Avanzo, S. Benetti, M. Branchesi, E. Brocato, S. Campana, E. Cappellaro, S. Covino, V. D’Elia, J. P. U. Fynbo + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature24298

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The X-ray counterpart to the gravitational-wave event GW170817 p.71

Detection of X-ray emission at a location coincident with the kilonova transient of the gravitational-wave event GW170817 provides the missing observational link between short γ-ray bursts and gravitational waves from neutron-star mergers.

E. Troja, L. Piro, H. van Eerten, R. T. Wollaeger, M. Im, O. D. Fox, N. R. Butler, S. B. Cenko, T. Sakamoto, C. L. Fryer + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature24290

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Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci p.92

Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci, predicts target genes for known risk loci and demonstrates a strong overlap with somatic driver genes in breast tumours.

Kyriaki Michailidou, Sara Lindström, Joe Dennis, Jonathan Beesley, Shirley Hui, Siddhartha Kar, Audrey Lemaçon, Penny Soucy, Dylan Glubb, Asha Rostamianfar + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature24284

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Single-cell transcriptomics reconstructs fate conversion from fibroblast to cardiomyocyte p.100

Single-cell transcriptomics analyses of cell intermediates during the reprogramming from fibroblast to cardiomyocyte were used to reconstruct the reprogramming trajectory and to uncover intermediate cell populations, gene pathways and regulators involved in this process.

Ziqing Liu, Li Wang, Joshua D. Welch, Hong Ma, Yang Zhou, Haley Ruth Vaseghi, Shuo Yu, Joseph Blake Wall, Sahar Alimohamadi, Michael Zheng + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature24454

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Reversing SKI–SMAD4-mediated suppression is essential for TH17 cell differentiation p.105

TGFβ signalling regulates T helper 17 (TH17) cell differentiation by reversing SKI–SMAD4-mediated suppression of RORγt, revealing a potential therapeutic target for treating TH17-related diseases.

Song Zhang, Motoki Takaku, Liyun Zou, Ai-di Gu, Wei-chun Chou, Ge Zhang, Bing Wu, Qing Kong, Seddon Y. Thomas, Jonathan S. Serody + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature24283

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IL-1R8 is a checkpoint in NK cells regulating anti-tumour and anti-viral activity p.110

Interleukin-1 receptor 8 (IL-1R8), a negative regulator of the IL-1 family of cytokines, restrains the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, suggesting that IL-1R8 acts as a checkpoint regulator of NK cell activation and that its blockade may be of use in cancer therapy.

Martina Molgora, Eduardo Bonavita, Andrea Ponzetta, Federica Riva, Marialuisa Barbagallo, Sébastien Jaillon, Branka Popović, Giovanni Bernardini, Elena Magrini, Francesca Gianni + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature24293

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Glucose feeds the TCA cycle via circulating lactate p.115

Metabolic flux analysis in mice reveals that lactate often acts as the primary carbon source for the tricarboxylic acid cycle both in normal tissues and in tumour microenvironments.

Sheng Hui, Jonathan M. Ghergurovich, Raphael J. Morscher, Cholsoon Jang, Xin Teng, Wenyun Lu, Lourdes A. Esparza & Tannishtha Reya

doi: 10.1038/nature24057

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