As research and editorial processes become increasingly open, scientists and editors need to be proactive but also alert to risks.
The upcoming referendum is unsettling researchers.
A study suggests a possible way to save more species.
Even before getting their own lives settled, teams collect information on storm behaviour and their effects on the ecosystem.
Giant observatory announces long-awaited result.
A new coalition could face battles over gene editing and climate regulations.
Despite close timing, researchers doubt that the first big tremor set off the second.
When forced to compete for mates, some birds develop longer penises and others almost nothing at all.
Biologists rush to study creatures living beneath Larsen C ice shelf before they disappear.
News & Views
Efforts to treat brain tumours by targeting cancer cells have had only modest clinical success. It emerges that targeting a protein secreted from neurons adjacent to the tumour might be a useful alternative approach. See Letter p.533
Two studies show that evaporation of molten rock was intrinsic to the formation of Earth and other rocky bodies in the Solar System, suggesting that violent collisions played a key part in the formation process. See Letters p.507 & p.511
It emerges that high levels of vitamin C in blood-forming stem cells influence the number and function of the cells and affect the development of leukaemia, through binding to a tumour-suppressor protein, Tet2. See Article p.476
Conventional wisdom dictates that an electron's magnetic moment and momentum are strongly coupled only in materials made of heavy elements. An experiment demonstrates a striking counterexample. See Letter p.492
Mutations that drive the abnormal expansion of progenitor subpopulations of blood cells are known to cause leukaemia. A genetic analysis reveals that these clonal blood stem-cell mutations are also common in people who have solid tumours.
Infection during pregnancy increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, in offspring. Mouse studies now reveal a link between gut bacteria and atypical brain-circuit connections. See Article p.482 & Letter p.528
Path-length-dependent axonal synapse sorting of local presynaptic axons of excitatory neurons in the rat medial entorhinal cortex results in sequential targeting of inhibitory and excitatory neurons, which are connected by a cellular feedforward inhibition circuit.
Ascorbate depletion in mice increased haematopoietic stem-cell frequency and promoted leukaemogenesis, partly by reducing the function of the Tet2 tumour suppressor enzyme.
The authors define a specific cortical subregion of the somatosensory cortex as a critical region of dysfunction that is causal to the emergence of abnormal social and repetitive behaviours in mice exposed to maternal inflammation.
Radiation pressure on dusty gas is the main physical mechanism that regulates the distribution of the circumnuclear material that obscures many supermassive black holes.
Asymmetry in surface hopping energies in different atomic layers of delafossite oxides results in some of the largest known Rashba-like spin splittings.
A polymer code based on a triplet of parameters—network strand length, side-chain length and grafting density—enables materials to be designed with specific combinations of mechanical properties to mimic biological materials.
The enzyme LepI is found to be capable of catalysing several natural-product pericyclic transformations, including a hetero-Diels–Alder reaction and a retro-Claisen rearrangement.
The pattern of volatile element depletion in the silicate Earth suggests that melting and vaporization on precursor bodies and during accretion were responsible for the volatile element contents of Earth.
The measurement of magnesium isotope ratios at improved accuracy suggests that planetary compositions result from fractionation between liquid and vapour, followed by vapour escape during accretionary growth.
The authors provide evidence for the existence of life on Earth in the earliest known sedimentary rocks and suggest that the presence of organic carbon, and low stable-isotope values of graphite from sedimentary rocks in Labrador pushes back the existence of organic life to beyond 3.95 billion years.
Whole-genome sequencing data of 14,688 Icelanders, including 1,548 parent–offspring trios, show how the age and sex of parents affect the rate and spectrum of de novo mutations.
ApoE4 exacerbates tau pathogenesis, neuroinflammation and tau-mediated neurodegeneration independently of brain amyloid-β pathology, and exerts a ‘toxic’ gain of function whereas its absence is protective.
Maternal immune activation (MIA)-mediated abnormal behavioural phenotypes require defined gut commensal bacteria for the induction of IL-17-producing T helper 17 cells.
The growth of adult and paediatric brain tumours depends on a microenvironmental signalling pathway involving the activity-regulated secretion of neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) from normal neurons and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, highlighting the potential of NLGN3 as a therapeutic target.
A novel quantitative approach to identify intact glycopeptides from comparative proteomic data sets, allowing inference of complex glycan structures and direct mapping of them to sites within the associated proteins at the proteome scale.
In mammals, the canonical somatic DNA methylation landscape is established upon
specification of the embryo proper and subsequently disrupted within many cancer
types. However, the underlying mechanisms that direct
this genome-scale transformation remain elusive, with no clear model for its
systematic acquisition or potential developmental utility. Here,
we analysed global remethylation from the mouse preimplantation embryo into the
early epiblast and extraembryonic ectoderm. We show that these two states acquire
highly divergent genomic distributions with substantial disruption of bimodal, CpG
density-dependent methylation in the placental progenitor. The
extraembryonic epigenome includes specific de novo methylation at hundreds of
embryonically protected CpG island promoters, particularly those that are associated
with key developmental regulators and are orthologously methylated across most human
cancer types. Our data suggest that the evolutionary innovation of
extraembryonic tissues may have required co-option of DNA methylation-based
suppression as an alternative to regulation by Polycomb-group proteins, which
coordinate embryonic germ-layer formation in response to extraembryonic cues. Moreover, we establish that this decision is made
deterministically, downstream of promiscuously used—and frequently
oncogenic—signalling pathways, via a novel combination of epigenetic
cofactors. Methylation of developmental gene promoters during tumorigenesis may
therefore reflect the misappropriation of an innate trajectory and the spontaneous
reacquisition of a latent, developmentally encoded epigenetic landscape.
CYREN is a direct inhibitor of classical non-homologous end joining that promotes error-free repair by homologous recombination during the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle.