네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Support Ismail Serageldin p.131

Egypt’s courts must listen to dozens of Nobel prizewinners who have defended the founder of the Alexandria Library.

doi: 10.1038/549131a

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News

News Features

News & Views

A fight for scraps of ammonia p.162

Bacteria that can oxidize both ammonia to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate seem to be better adapted to ammonia-limited environments than most cultured microbes that oxidize ammonia to nitrite only, contrary to expectations. See Letter p.269

Marcel M. M. Kuypers

doi: 10.1038/549162a

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A laser model for cosmology p.163

Experiments reveal that the laws governing the immediate aftermath of the Big Bang also apply to the behaviour of coupled lasers. The findings could be used to solve complex computational problems.

Stefan Rotter

doi: 10.1038/549163a

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Division hierarchy leads to cell heterogeneity p.164

Cellular diversity can hamper cancer treatment. Analysis of tumour cell-division patterns now reveals how such heterogeneity can arise by a hierarchical pattern of stem-cell divisions yielding a mosaic of different cells. See Article p.227

Joan Seoane

doi: 10.1038/nature23546

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The future of Asia's glaciers p.166

Glaciers in the high mountains of Asia are a crucial water resource, but are at risk from global warming. Modelling suggests that the glaciers will shed mass in direct proportion to the warming to which they are exposed. See Letter p.257

J. Graham Cogley

doi: 10.1038/549166a

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Plenty of fish in the tree p.167

Polypterid fish were considered to be archaic outliers of the bony-fish grouping. Fossil analysis now places them at the heart of early ray-finned fishes, a radical change that transforms the timing of their evolution. See Letter p.265

Michael Coates

doi: 10.1038/549167a

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Nanomagnets boost thermoelectric output p.169

The direct conversion of heat into electricity — a reversible process known as the thermoelectric effect — can be greatly enhanced in some materials by embedding them with a small number of magnetic nanoparticles. See Letter p.247

Stephen R. Boona

doi: 10.1038/549169a

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Review

Detecting recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer p.211

An overview of the nature and timescales of stratospheric ozone recovery and the extent to which it can currently be detected.

Martyn P. Chipperfield, Slimane Bekki, Sandip Dhomse, Neil R. P. Harris, Birgit Hassler, Ryan Hossaini, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Rémi Thiéblemont & Mark Weber

doi: 10.1038/nature23681

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Perspective

The 4D nucleome project p.219

The 4D Nucleome Network aims to develop and apply approaches to map the structure and dynamics of the human and mouse genomes in space and time with the goal of gaining deeper mechanistic insights into how the nucleus is organized and functions. The project will develop and benchmark experimental and computational approaches for measuring genome conformation and nuclear organization, and investigate how these contribute to gene regulation and other genome functions. Validated experimental technologies will be combined with biophysical approaches to generate quantitative models of spatial genome organization in different biological states, both in cell populations and in single cells.

Job Dekker, Andrew S. Belmont, Mitchell Guttman, Victor O. Leshyk, John T. Lis, Stavros Lomvardas, Leonid A. Mirny, Clodagh C. O’Shea, Peter J. Park, Bing Ren + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23884

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Articles

Fate mapping of human glioblastoma reveals an invariant stem cell hierarchy p.227

Using unique barcodes for tumour cells, the authors explore the dynamics of human glioblastoma subpopulations, and suggest that clonal heterogeneity emerges through stochastic fate decisions of a neutral proliferative hierarchy.

Xiaoyang Lan, David J. Jörg, Florence M. G. Cavalli, Laura M. Richards, Long V. Nguyen, Robert J. Vanner, Paul Guilhamon, Lilian Lee, Michelle M. Kushida, Davide Pellacani + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23666

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Structural basis of MsbA-mediated lipopolysaccharide transport p.233

Cryo-electron microscopy snapshots of the E. coli flippase MsbA at discrete functional states reveal a ‘trap and flip’ mechanism for lipopolysaccharide flipping and the conformational transitions of MsbA during its substrate transport cycle.

Wei Mi, Yanyan Li, Sung Hwan Yoon, Robert K. Ernst, Thomas Walz & Maofu Liao

doi: 10.1038/nature23649

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Letters

Detection of titanium oxide in the atmosphere of a hot Jupiter p.238

Titanium oxide, water, sodium and a strongly scattering haze have been detected in the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter exoplanet WASP-19b.

Elyar Sedaghati, Henri M. J. Boffin, Ryan J. MacDonald, Siddharth Gandhi, Nikku Madhusudhan, Neale P. Gibson, Mahmoudreza Oshagh, Antonio Claret & Heike Rauer

doi: 10.1038/nature23651

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Superparamagnetic enhancement of thermoelectric performance p.247

By embedding superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a thermoelectric matrix, phonon and electron transport within the material can be controlled simultaneously at nanometre and mesoscopic length scales, thereby improving the thermoelectric performance of the material.

Wenyu Zhao, Zhiyuan Liu, Zhigang Sun, Qingjie Zhang, Ping Wei, Xin Mu, Hongyu Zhou, Cuncheng Li, Shifang Ma, Danqi He + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23667

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Real-space imaging of non-collinear antiferromagnetic order with a single-spin magnetometer p.252

A non-invasive scanning magnetometer, based on a single nitrogen–vacancy defect in diamond, visualizes antiferromagnetic order at the nanometre scale in thin films of bismuth ferrite at room temperature.

I. Gross, W. Akhtar, V. Garcia, L. J. Martínez, S. Chouaieb, K. Garcia, C. Carrétéro, A. Barthélémy, P. Appel, P. Maletinsky + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23656

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Impact of a global temperature rise of 1.5 degrees Celsius on Asia’s glaciers p.257

Models show that even if global temperature rise can be limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius, only about 65 per cent of glacier mass will remain in the high mountains of Asia by the end of this century, and if temperatures rise by more than this the effects will be much more extreme.

P. D. A. Kraaijenbrink, M. F. P. Bierkens, A. F. Lutz & W. W. Immerzeel

doi: 10.1038/nature23878

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Kinetic analysis of a complete nitrifier reveals an oligotrophic lifestyle p.269

A pure culture of the complete nitrifier Nitrospira inopinata shows a high affinity for ammonia, low maximum rate of ammonia oxidation, high growth yield compared to canonical nitrifiers and genomic potential for alternative metabolisms, probably reflecting an important role in nitrification in oligotrophic environments.

K. Dimitri Kits, Christopher J. Sedlacek, Elena V. Lebedeva, Ping Han, Alexandr Bulaev, Petra Pjevac, Anne Daebeler, Stefano Romano, Mads Albertsen, Lisa Y. Stein + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23679

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m6A modulates haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell specification p.273

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has been identified as the most abundant modification on eukaryote messenger RNA (mRNA) 1. Although the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled insight into the biological functions of m6A modification2–13, the function of m6A during vertebrate embryogenesis remains poorly understood. Here we show that m6A determines cell fate during the endothelial-to-haematopoietic transition (EHT) to specify the earliest haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) during zebrafish embryogenesis. m6Aspecific methylated RNA immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing (MeRIP–seq) and m6A individualnucleotide-resolution cross-linking and immunoprecipitation with sequencing (miCLIP–seq) analyses reveal conserved features on zebrafish m6A methylome and preferential distribution of m6A peaks near the stop codon with a consensus RRACH motif. In mettl3-deficient embryos, levels of m6A are significantly decreased and emergence of HSPCs is blocked. Mechanistically, we identify that the delayed YTHDF2-mediated mRNA decay of the arterial endothelial genes notch1a and rhoca contributes to this deleterious effect. The continuous activation of Notch signalling in arterial endothelial cells of mettl3-deficient embryos blocks EHT, thereby repressing the generation of the earliest HSPCs. Furthermore, knockdown of Mettl3 in mice confers a similar phenotype. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the critical function of m6A modification in the fate determination of HSPCs during vertebrate embryogenesis.

Chunxia Zhang, Yusheng Chen, Baofa Sun, Lu Wang, Ying Yang, Dongyuan Ma, Junhua Lv, Jian Heng, Yanyan Ding, Yuanyuan Xue + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23883

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Neuronal regulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells via neuromedin U p.277

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells express the neuromedin U receptor 1 (NMUR1) and respond to neuromedin U (NMU) released by adjacent enteric neurons, and this interaction results in an enhanced immediate early response to the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

Vânia Cardoso, Julie Chesné, Hélder Ribeiro, Bethania García-Cassani, Tânia Carvalho, Tiffany Bouchery, Kathleen Shah, Nuno L. Barbosa-Morais, Nicola Harris & Henrique Veiga-Fernandes

doi: 10.1038/nature23469

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The neuropeptide neuromedin U stimulates innate lymphoid cells and type 2 inflammation p.282

Intestinal type 2 innate lymphoid cells express the neuropeptide receptor NMUR1, which makes them responsive to neuronal neuromedin U, thereby promoting a type 2 cytokine response and accelerated expulsion of the gastro-intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

Christoph S. N. Klose, Tanel Mahlakõiv, Jesper B. Moeller, Lucille C. Rankin, Anne-Laure Flamar, Hiroki Kabata, Laurel A. Monticelli, Saya Moriyama, Gregory Garbès Putzel, Nikolai Rakhilin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23676

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Polycomb-like proteins link the PRC2 complex to CpG islands p.287

Crystal structures of the Polycomb-like proteins PHF1 and MTF2 with bound DNA and histone peptides show that extended homologous regions of the two proteins form a winged-helix structure that has an unexpected mechanism of binding to unmethylated CpG-containing DNA motifs.

Haojie Li, Robert Liefke, Junyi Jiang, Jesse Vigoda Kurland, Wei Tian, Pujuan Deng, Weidi Zhang, Qian He, Dinshaw J. Patel, Martha L. Bulyk + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23881

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