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Catalytic hotspots get noisy p.34

Identifying and imaging catalytically active sites on solid surfaces is a grand challenge for science. A microscopy technique has been developed that images 'noise' to detect active sites with nanometre-scale resolution. See Letter p.74

Christian Dette & Shannon W. Boettcher

doi: 10.1038/549034a

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Sexual attraction channelled in moss p.35

An analysis reveals that both sexual reproduction and early-embryo development in the moss Physcomitrella patens are controlled by cellular calcium influxes through ion-channel proteins. See Letter p.91

Leonie Steinhorst & Jörg Kudla

doi: 10.1038/nature23543

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Pulley protection in batteries p.37

High-energy battery electrodes can break apart during operation. Conventional rope-and-pulley systems have inspired the development of a polymer that holds electrodes together at the molecular scale, enabling durable batteries to be made.

Matthew T. McDowell

doi: 10.1038/549037a

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Rhino gives voice to silent chromatin p.38

Flies use master lists of DNA sequences from transposons to identify and silence these virus-like, genomic parasites. How the lists themselves escape the fate of their transposon targets has now been solved. See Letter p.54

Phillip D. Zamore

doi: 10.1038/549038a

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The next best thing p.39

A patient's tumour cells can be transplanted into a mouse to provide a model for analysis and drug testing. A panel of paediatric solid tumour models has been extensively characterized and made freely available. See Letter p.96

Mark A. Murakami & David M. Weinstock

doi: 10.1038/nature23545

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Quantum signals could soon span the globe p.41

Quantum communication offers many advantages over classical methods, but it has been limited to sending signals across a few hundred kilometres. Two studies overcome this limitation. See Article p.43 & Letter p.70

Eleni Diamanti

doi: 10.1038/549041a

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Articles

Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution p.43

Decoy-state quantum key distribution from a satellite to a ground station is achieved with much greater efficiency than is possible over the same distance using optical fibres.

Sheng-Kai Liao, Wen-Qi Cai, Wei-Yue Liu, Liang Zhang, Yang Li, Ji-Gang Ren, Juan Yin, Qi Shen, Yuan Cao, Zheng-Ping Li + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23655

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Commensal bacteria make GPCR ligands that mimic human signalling molecules p.48

Commensal bacteria have N-acyl amide synthase genes that encode signalling molecules (N-acyl amides) that can interact with G-protein-coupled receptors and elicit host cellular responses similar to eukaryotic N-acyl amides.

Louis J. Cohen, Daria Esterhazy, Seong-Hwan Kim, Christophe Lemetre, Rhiannon R. Aguilar, Emma A. Gordon, Amanda J. Pickard, Justin R. Cross, Ana B. Emiliano, Sun M. Han + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23874

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A heterochromatin-dependent transcription machinery drives piRNA expression p.54

Transcription of Drosophila PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) clusters is enforced through RNA polymerase II pre-initiation complex formation within repressive heterochromatin, accomplished through the transcription factor IIA subunit paralogue Moonshiner.

Peter Refsing Andersen, Laszlo Tirian, Milica Vunjak & Julius Brennecke

doi: 10.1038/nature23482

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Channel opening and gating mechanism in AMPA-subtype glutamate receptors p.60

The structures of AMPA receptors in complex with auxiliary proteins are resolved by cryo-electron microscopy, and reveal conformational and permeation pathway changes that are associated with activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors.

Edward C. Twomey, Maria V. Yelshanskaya, Robert A. Grassucci, Joachim Frank & Alexander I. Sobolevsky

doi: 10.1038/nature23479

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Letters

Discrete and broadband electron acceleration in Jupiter’s powerful aurora p.66

The process that generates Earth’s most intense aurora is found to occur at Jupiter, but is of only secondary importance in generating Jupiter’s much more powerful aurora.

B. H. Mauk, D. K. Haggerty, C. Paranicas, G. Clark, P. Kollmann, A. M. Rymer, S. J. Bolton, S. M. Levin, A. Adriani, F. Allegrini + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23648

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Ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation p.70

Quantum teleportation of single-photon qubits from a ground observatory to a satellite in low-Earth orbit via an uplink channel is achieved with a fidelity that is well above the classical limit.

Ji-Gang Ren, Ping Xu, Hai-Lin Yong, Liang Zhang, Sheng-Kai Liao, Juan Yin, Wei-Yue Liu, Wen-Qi Cai, Meng Yang, Li Li + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23675

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Direct instrumental identification of catalytically active surface sites p.74

Scanning tunnelling microscopy is used to distinguish between different active sites of a catalyst—such as boundaries between different materials—during a reaction, allowing the contributions of these sites to be evaluated.

Jonas H. K. Pfisterer, Yunchang Liang, Oliver Schneider & Aliaksandr S. Bandarenka

doi: 10.1038/nature23661

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A series of energetic metal pentazolate hydrates p.78

Metal complexes of the pentazole anion exhibit multiple coordination modes, through ionic, covalent and hydrogen-bonding interactions, and good thermal stability with onset decomposition temperatures greater than 100 °C.

Yuangang Xu, Qian Wang, Cheng Shen, Qiuhan Lin, Pengcheng Wang & Ming Lu

doi: 10.1038/nature23662

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Island biogeography of marine organisms p.82

On marine islands, most species are good dispersers and most niches are filled by immigration with little adaptive radiation; speciation increases over time, associated with the arrival of weak dispersers that randomly establish isolated populations.

Hudson T. Pinheiro, Giacomo Bernardi, Thiony Simon, Jean-Christophe Joyeux, Raphael M. Macieira, João Luiz Gasparini, Claudia Rocha & Luiz A. Rocha

doi: 10.1038/nature23680

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A right-handed signalling pathway drives heart looping in vertebrates p.86

Two parallel signalling pathways, driven by Nodal and BMP, respectively integrate left- and right-handed information that drives heart looping and morphogenesis, and are conserved between zebrafish, chicken and mouse.

Oscar H. Ocaña, Hakan Coskun, Carolina Minguillón, Prayag Murawala, Elly M. Tanaka, Joan Galcerán, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli & M. Angela Nieto

doi: 10.1038/nature23454

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Orthotopic patient-derived xenografts of paediatric solid tumours p.96

A protocol producing orthotopic patient-derived xenografts at diagnosis, recurrence, and autopsy demonstrates proof of principle for using these tumours for basic and translational research on paediatric solid tumours.

Elizabeth Stewart, Sara M. Federico, Xiang Chen, Anang A. Shelat, Cori Bradley, Brittney Gordon, Asa Karlstrom, Nathaniel R. Twarog, Michael R. Clay, Armita Bahrami + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23647

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CMTM6 maintains the expression of PD-L1 and regulates anti-tumour immunity p.101

CMTM6 maintains PD-L1 at the plasma membrane by inhibiting its lysosome-mediated degradation and promoting its recycling.

Marian L. Burr, Christina E. Sparbier, Yih-Chih Chan, James C. Williamson, Katherine Woods, Paul A. Beavis, Enid Y. N. Lam, Melissa A. Henderson, Charles C. Bell, Sabine Stolzenburg + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23643

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Identification of CMTM6 and CMTM4 as PD-L1 protein regulators p.106

CMTM6 and CMTM4 bind to and stabilize the inhibitory receptor PD-L1 and regulate PD-L1 levels at the surface of human tumour and immune cells.

Riccardo Mezzadra, Chong Sun, Lucas T. Jae, Raquel Gomez-Eerland, Evert de Vries, Wei Wu, Meike E. W. Logtenberg, Maarten Slagter, Elisa A. Rozeman, Ingrid Hofland + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23669

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Discovery of stimulation-responsive immune enhancers with CRISPR activation p.111

The authors use tiled CRISPR activation for functional enhancer discovery across two autoimmunity risk loci, CD69 and IL2RA, and identify elements with features of stimulus-responsive enhancers, including an IL2RA enhancer that harbours a fine-mapped autoimmunity risk variant.

Dimitre R. Simeonov, Benjamin G. Gowen, Mandy Boontanrart, Theodore L. Roth, John D. Gagnon, Maxwell R. Mumbach, Ansuman T. Satpathy, Youjin Lee, Nicolas L. Bray, Alice Y. Chan + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23875

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