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The fastest-rotating fluid p.34

A state of matter called a quark–gluon plasma is produced in energetic collisions of heavy ions. The rotation of this plasma has been measured for the first time, providing insights into the physics of the strong nuclear force. See Letter p.62

Hannah Petersen

doi: 10.1038/548034a

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Neurons couple up to make decisions p.35

The use of state-of-the-art techniques to study neuronal activity during a navigational task involving sound stimuli broadens our understanding of how neuronal populations produce complex behaviours. See Letter p.92

Stephen V. David

doi: 10.1038/nature23100

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Energy sensing through a sugar diphosphate p.36

The molecule fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, which is produced during glucose metabolism, has been shown to mediate cellular sensing of glucose deprivation through an unexpected mechanism. See Letter p.112

Bruce E. Kemp & Jonathan S. Oakhill

doi: 10.1038/nature23099

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Ozone-like layer in an exoplanet atmosphere p.38

The nature of exoplanetary atmospheres is hotly debated. The thermal spectrum of an exoplanet called a hot Jupiter reveals the presence of an analogue of Earth's ozone layer, although its composition is unknown. See Letter p.58

Kevin Heng

doi: 10.1038/548038b

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A precision approach to tumour treatment p.40

Progress is being made in the use of personalized approaches to create both in vitro and in vivo tumour models that could be used to aid cancer drug-treatment decisions and increase our understanding of how tumours respond to therapy.

Rodrigo Dienstmann & Josep Tabernero

doi: 10.1038/nature23101

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Perspective

Article

Hypothalamic stem cells control ageing speed partly through exosomal miRNAs p.52

Ablation of hypothalamic stem/progenitor cells in mice leads to ageing-related decreases in physiological parameters and lifespan, and the speed of ageing is partially controlled by these cells through the release of exosomal miRNAs.

Yalin Zhang, Min Soo Kim, Baosen Jia, Jingqi Yan, Juan Pablo Zuniga-Hertz, Cheng Han & Dongsheng Cai

doi: 10.1038/nature23282

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Letters

An ultrahot gas-giant exoplanet with a stratosphere p.58

Observations of the gas-giant exoplanet WASP-121b reveal near-infrared emission lines of water, suggesting that the planet has a stratosphere—a layer in the upper atmosphere where temperature increases with altitude.

Thomas M. Evans, David K. Sing, Tiffany Kataria, Jayesh Goyal, Nikolay Nikolov, Hannah R. Wakeford, Drake Deming, Mark S. Marley, David S. Amundsen, Gilda E. Ballester + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23266

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Global Λ hyperon polarization in nuclear collisions p.62

The extreme energy densities generated by ultra-relativistic collisions between heavy atomic nuclei produce a state of matter that behaves surprisingly like a fluid, with exceptionally high temperature and low viscosity. Non-central collisions have angular momenta of the order of 1,000ћ, and the resulting fluid may have a strong vortical structure that must be understood to describe the fluid properly. The vortical structure is also of particular interest because the restoration of fundamental symmetries of quantum chromodynamics is expected to produce novel physical effects in the presence of strong vorticity. However, no experimental indications of fluid vorticity in heavy ion collisions have yet been found. Since vorticity represents a local rotational structure of the fluid, spin–orbit coupling can lead to preferential orientation of particle spins along the direction of rotation. Here we present measurements of an alignment between the global angular momentum of a non-central collision and the spin of emitted particles (in this case the collision occurs between gold nuclei and produces Λ baryons), revealing that the fluid produced in heavy ion collisions is the most vortical system so far observed. (At high energies, this fluid is a quark–gluon plasma.) We find that Λ and hyperons show a positive polarization of the order of a few per cent, consistent with some hydrodynamic predictions. (A hyperon is a particle composed of three quarks, at least one of which is a strange quark; the remainder are up and down quarks, found in protons and neutrons.) A previous measurement that reported a null result, that is, zero polarization, at higher collision energies is seen to be consistent with the trend of our observations, though with larger statistical uncertainties. These data provide experimental access to the vortical structure of the nearly ideal liquid created in a heavy ion collision and should prove valuable in the development of hydrodynamic models that quantitatively connect observations to the theory of the strong force.

doi: 10.1038/nature23004

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Observation of the hyperfine spectrum of antihydrogen OPEN p.66

The hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen has been measured and is consistent with expectations for atomic hydrogen.

M. Ahmadi, B. X. R. Alves, C. J. Baker, W. Bertsche, E. Butler, A. Capra, C. Carruth, C. L. Cesar, M. Charlton, S. Cohen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23446

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Elements of Eoarchean life trapped in mineral inclusions p.78

In situ infrared spectroscopy maps the occurrences of chemical bonds within tiny inclusions in 3,700-million-year-old metasedimentary rocks from West Greenland, finding greater evidence for organic life at this early date.

T. Hassenkam, M. P. Andersson, K. N. Dalby, D. M. A. Mackenzie & M. T. Rosing

doi: 10.1038/nature23261

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Persistent anthrax as a major driver of wildlife mortality in a tropical rainforest p.82

An anthrax-causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, is a persistent and widespread cause of death for a broad range of mammalian hosts in a tropical rainforest, with important implications for the conservation of mammals such as chimpanzees.

Constanze Hoffmann, Fee Zimmermann, Roman Biek, Hjalmar Kuehl, Kathrin Nowak, Roger Mundry, Anthony Agbor, Samuel Angedakin, Mimi Arandjelovic, Anja Blankenburg + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23309

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Sequencing and de novo assembly of 150 genomes from Denmark as a population reference OPEN p.87

A report of high-depth, short-read sequencing and de novo assemblies for 150 individuals from 50 parent–offspring trios as part of establishing a population reference genome for the GenomeDenmark project.

Lasse Maretty, Jacob Malte Jensen, Bent Petersen, Jonas Andreas Sibbesen, Siyang Liu, Palle Villesen, Laurits Skov, Kirstine Belling, Christian Theil Have, Jose M. G. Izarzugaza + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23264

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Distinct timescales of population coding across cortex p.92

Calcium imaging data from mice performing a virtual reality auditory decision-making task are used to analyse the population codes in primary auditory and posterior parietal cortex that support choice behaviour.

Caroline A. Runyan, Eugenio Piasini, Stefano Panzeri & Christopher D. Harvey

doi: 10.1038/nature23020

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In vivo FRET–FLIM reveals cell-type-specific protein interactions in Arabidopsis roots p.97

Imaging in living Arabidopsis roots reveals that protein complexes can change their conformation in a cell-type-dependent manner to regulate specific gene expression programs leading to precise specification and maintenance of particular cell fates within the root meristem.

Yuchen Long, Yvonne Stahl, Stefanie Weidtkamp-Peters, Marten Postma, Wenkun Zhou, Joachim Goedhart, María-Isabel Sánchez-Pérez, Theodorus W. J. Gadella, Rüdiger Simon, Ben Scheres + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23317

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Stimulation of functional neuronal regeneration from Müller glia in adult mice p.103

Inhibition of histone deacetylation allows the transcription factor Ascl1 to bind to key gene loci in Müller glia and drive the functional generation of retinal neurons in adult mice.

Nikolas L. Jorstad, Matthew S. Wilken, William N. Grimes, Stefanie G. Wohl, Leah S. VandenBosch, Takeshi Yoshimatsu, Rachel O. Wong, Fred Rieke & Thomas A. Reh

doi: 10.1038/nature23283

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Rapid elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV by immunization in cows p.108

Immunization of cows with a recombinant HIV envelope protein leads to the rapid development of potent, broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV.

Devin Sok, Khoa M. Le, Melissa Vadnais, Karen L. Saye-Francisco, Joseph G. Jardine, Jonathan L. Torres, Zachary T. Berndsen, Leopold Kong, Robyn Stanfield, Jennifer Ruiz + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23301

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Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and aldolase mediate glucose sensing by AMPK p.112

Glucose starvation activates AMPK via an AMP/ADP-independent mechanism that involves fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and aldolase.

Chen-Song Zhang, Simon A. Hawley, Yue Zong, Mengqi Li, Zhichao Wang, Alexander Gray, Teng Ma, Jiwen Cui, Jin-Wei Feng, Mingjiang Zhu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23275

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