네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Helium should be recycled p.6

The geopolitical crisis in the Middle East highlights the vulnerability of supplies of an essential research resource.

doi: 10.1038/547006a

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News

News Features

Single-cell biology p.19

Analyses of life's most basic elements promise to improve therapies and provide insights into some of the most fundamental processes in biology.

doi: 10.1038/547019a

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News & Views

Continuous chromatin changes p.34

DNA is packaged in the cell as chromatin, which folds into organized domains. Mapping of chromatin contacts in single cells sheds light on the dynamic evolution of these domains between cell divisions. See Article p.61

Robert A. Beagrie & Ana Pombo

doi: 10.1038/547034a

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Ice-sheet history revealed by fossils p.35

Microscopic fossils show that, from 10,400 to 7,500 years ago, upwelling of a water mass called Circumpolar Deep Water destabilized Antarctic ice shelves — a finding that advances our understanding of ice-sheet retreat. See Article p.43

Jennifer Hertzberg

doi: 10.1038/547035a

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The patterns of T-cell target recognition p.36

The binding of T-cell receptors to peptide molecules not normally present in the body can trigger an immune response. Predicting which peptide a T-cell receptor will bind to — a difficult feat — has now been achieved. See Letters p.89 & p.94

Sai T. Reddy

doi: 10.1038/nature23091

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3D integration advances computing p.38

Integrated circuits usually have only one layer of electronic devices, which limits their performance and functionality. A 3D integrated circuit that incorporates multiple device layers enables a wealth of applications. See Letter p.74

Sherief Reda

doi: 10.1038/547038a

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Less is more in the hunt for driver mutations p.40

An analysis of 360 breast-cancer genomes has identified cancer-driving mutations in 9 non-coding DNA sequences called promoters, which regulate gene expression. The result hints at the prevalence of non-coding drivers. See Article p.55

Sushant Kumar & Mark Gerstein

doi: 10.1038/nature23085

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Stellar siblings grow closer with age p.41

High-mass stars often pair up to form binary systems. Observations reveal that the stars in such systems are born farther apart than was formerly thought, casting fresh light on an enduring debate about star formation.

Aaron M. Geller

doi: 10.1038/nature23092

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Articles

West Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat driven by Holocene warm water incursions p.43

During the early Holocene epoch—and since the 1940s—variations in Southern Hemisphere westerly winds controlled the upwelling of Circumpolar Deep Water and seemingly ice-sheet retreat in West Antarctica.

Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, James A. Smith, David A. Hodell, Mervyn Greaves, Christopher R. Poole, Sev Kender, Mark Williams, Thorbjørn Joest Andersen, Patrycja E. Jernas, Henry Elderfield + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22995

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Climate change drives expansion of Antarctic ice-free habitat p.49

Permanently ice-free areas, home to almost all of Antarctica’s biodiversity, are projected, in the worst case, to expand by over 17,000 km2 as a result of climate change by the end of this century, with potentially deleterious consequences for the continent’s biodiversity.

Jasmine R. Lee, Ben Raymond, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, Iadine Chadès, Richard A. Fuller, Justine D. Shaw & Aleks Terauds

doi: 10.1038/nature22996

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Recurrent and functional regulatory mutations in breast cancer p.55

High-depth sequencing of targeted regions in primary breast cancer identifies mutated promoter elements with recurrent mutations at specific and/or nearby bases, suggesting selection of certain non-coding events.

Esther Rheinbay, Prasanna Parasuraman, Jonna Grimsby, Grace Tiao, Jesse M. Engreitz, Jaegil Kim, Michael S. Lawrence, Amaro Taylor-Weiner, Sergio Rodriguez-Cuevas, Mara Rosenberg + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22992

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Cell-cycle dynamics of chromosomal organization at single-cell resolution p.61

Single-cell Hi-C analysis in thousands of mouse embryonic stem cells shows that chromosomal compartments, topological-associated domains and long-range loops all have distinct cell-cycle dynamics.

Takashi Nagano, Yaniv Lubling, Csilla Várnai, Carmel Dudley, Wing Leung, Yael Baran, Netta Mendelson Cohen, Steven Wingett, Peter Fraser & Amos Tanay

doi: 10.1038/nature23001

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Single-molecule analysis of ligand efficacy in β2AR–G-protein activation p.68

Single-molecule FRET imaging provides insights into the allosteric link between the ligand-binding and G-protein nucleotide-binding pockets of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and improved understanding of the G-protein activation mechanism.

G. Glenn Gregorio, Matthieu Masureel, Daniel Hilger, Daniel S. Terry, Manuel Juette, Hong Zhao, Zhou Zhou, Jose Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Maria Hauge, Signe Mathiasen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22354

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Letters

Selective sp3 C–H alkylation via polarity-match-based cross-coupling p.79

The functionalization of carbon–hydrogen (C–H) bonds is one of the most attractive strategies for molecular construction in organic chemistry. The hydrogen atom is considered to be an ideal coupling handle, owing to its relative abundance in organic molecules and its availability for functionalization at almost any stage in a synthetic sequence. Although many C–H functionalization reactions involve C(sp3)–C(sp2) coupling, there is a growing demand for C–H alkylation reactions, wherein sp3 C–H bonds are replaced with sp3 C–alkyl groups. Here we describe a polarity-match-based selective sp3 C–H alkylation via the combination of photoredox, nickel and hydrogen-atom transfer catalysis. This methodology simultaneously uses three catalytic cycles to achieve hydridic C–H bond abstraction (enabled by polarity matching), alkyl halide oxidative addition, and reductive elimination to enable alkyl–alkyl fragment coupling. The sp3 C–H alkylation is highly selective for the α-C–H of amines, ethers and sulphides, which are commonly found in pharmaceutically relevant architectures. This cross-coupling protocol should enable broad synthetic applications in de novo synthesis and late-stage functionalization chemistry.

Chip Le, Yufan Liang, Ryan W. Evans, Ximing Li & David W. C. MacMillan

doi: 10.1038/nature22813

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Quantifiable predictive features define epitope-specific T cell receptor repertoires p.89

The authors characterize epitope-specific T cell repertoires, identify shared and recognizable features of TCRs, and develop tools to classify antigen specificity on the basis of sequence analysis.

Pradyot Dash, Andrew J. Fiore-Gartland, Tomer Hertz, George C. Wang, Shalini Sharma, Aisha Souquette, Jeremy Chase Crawford, E. Bridie Clemens, Thi H. O. Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22383

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Identifying specificity groups in the T cell receptor repertoire p.94

The authors devise an algorithm that can cluster T cell receptor (TCR) sequences sharing the same specificity, predict the HLA restriction of these TCR clusters on the basis of subjects’ genotypes and help to identify specific peptide major histocompatibility complex ligands.

Jacob Glanville, Huang Huang, Allison Nau, Olivia Hatton, Lisa E. Wagar, Florian Rubelt, Xuhuai Ji, Arnold Han, Sheri M. Krams, Christina Pettus + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22976

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Tracing the origins of relapse in acute myeloid leukaemia to stem cells p.104

Identification of the cell types from which relapse arises in acute myeloid leukaemia, by following leukaemia propagation from patient-derived leukaemia samples.

Liran I. Shlush, Amanda Mitchell, Lawrence Heisler, Sagi Abelson, Stanley W. K. Ng, Aaron Trotman-Grant, Jessie J. F. Medeiros, Abilasha Rao-Bhatia, Ivana Jaciw-Zurakowsky, Rene Marke + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22993

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mTORC1-dependent AMD1 regulation sustains polyamine metabolism in prostate cancer p.109

mTOR complex 1 signalling regulates polyamine metabolism and thereby promotes tumorigenesis, through regulation of the stability of a key enzyme, AMD1.

Amaia Zabala-Letona, Amaia Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Natalia Martín-Martín, Sonia Fernandez-Ruiz, James D. Sutherland, Michelle Clasquin, Julen Tomas-Cortazar, Jose Jimenez, Ines Torres, Phong Quang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22964

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RNase III nucleases from diverse kingdoms serve as antiviral effectors p.114

RNase III from all three domains of life elicits RNA-targeting antiviral activity that is independent of, and possibly predates, other known eukaryotic antiviral systems.

Lauren C. Aguado, Sonja Schmid, Jared May, Leah R. Sabin, Maryline Panis, Daniel Blanco-Melo, Jaehee V. Shim, David Sachs, Sara Cherry, Anne E. Simon + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22990

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Electron cryo-microscopy structure of the mechanotransduction channel NOMPC p.118

Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy analysis of the mechanotransduction channel NOMPC reveals that it contains a bundle of four helical spring-shaped ankyrin repeat domains that undergo motion, potentially allowing mechanical movement of the cytoskeleton to be coupled to the opening of the channel.

Peng Jin, David Bulkley, Yanmeng Guo, Wei Zhang, Zhenhao Guo, Walter Huynh, Shenping Wu, Shan Meltzer, Tong Cheng, Lily Yeh Jan + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22981

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