네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

A sugar high in structural biology p.186

Four Nature papers describing the receptor structures involved in glucose metabolism hold great promise for finding new ways to treat diabetes.

doi: 10.1038/546186a

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News

News Features

News & Views

On the origin of our species p.212

Gaps in the fossil record have limited our understanding of how Homo sapiens evolved. The discovery in Morocco of the earliest known H. sapiens fossils might revise our ideas about human evolution in Africa. See Letters p.289 & p.293

Chris Stringer & Julia Galway-Witham

doi: 10.1038/546212a

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One ring to multiplex them all p.214

High-speed communication systems that use optical fibres often require hundreds of lasers. An approach that replaces these lasers with a single, ring-shaped optical device offers many technical advantages. See Letter p.274

Victor Torres-Company

doi: 10.1038/546214a

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RNA repeats put a freeze on cells p.215

Droplet-like assemblies of RNA in cell nuclei are associated with certain neurodegenerative diseases. Experiments reveal that these assemblies become 'frozen' gels in cells, potentially explaining their toxicity. See Article p.243

David W. Sanders & Clifford P. Brangwynne

doi: 10.1038/nature22503

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Differences can hold populations together p.218

Evolution favours the body form best adapted to the local environment, but it can also favour rare forms. Stickleback experiments reveal how these two selection forces can interact, and how this can limit population divergence. See Letter p.285

David N. Reznick & Joseph Travis

doi: 10.1038/nature22502

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Cracking the palaeoclimate code p.219

The geological record contains evidence of how Earth's climate responded to periodic changes in our planet's orbit and rotation. An investigation reveals how this record can be leveraged to constrain estimates of past climate dynamics.

Stephen Meyers

doi: 10.1038/nature22501

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Reviews

Articles

RNA phase transitions in repeat expansion disorders p.243

Nucleotide repeat expansions create templates for multivalent base-pairing, which causes RNA to undergo a sol–gel phase transition and may explain the formation of nuclear RNA foci that are commonly observed in several neurological and neuromuscular diseases.

Ankur Jain & Ronald D. Vale

doi: 10.1038/nature22386

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Crystal structure of the GLP-1 receptor bound to a peptide agonist p.254

The solved crystal structure of the GLP-1 receptor bound to a truncated agonist enables the design of synthetic agonists that exhibit potent activity in vivo.

Ali Jazayeri, Mathieu Rappas, Alastair J. H. Brown, James Kean, James C. Errey, Nathan J. Robertson, Cédric Fiez-Vandal, Stephen P. Andrews, Miles Congreve, Andrea Bortolato + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22800

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Structure of the full-length glucagon class B G-protein-coupled receptor p.259

The crystal structure of the full-length human glucagon receptor reveals the essential role of the 12-residue ‘stalk’ segment and an extracellular loop in the regulation of ligand binding and receptor activation.

Haonan Zhang, Anna Qiao, Dehua Yang, Linlin Yang, Antao Dai, Chris de Graaf, Steffen Reedtz-Runge, Venkatasubramanian Dharmarajan, Hui Zhang, Gye Won Han + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22363

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Letters

Layer-dependent ferromagnetism in a van der Waals crystal down to the monolayer limit p.270

Magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy is used to show that monolayer chromium triiodide is an Ising ferromagnet with out-of-plane spin orientation.

Bevin Huang, Genevieve Clark, Efrén Navarro-Moratalla, Dahlia R. Klein, Ran Cheng, Kyle L. Seyler, Ding Zhong, Emma Schmidgall, Michael A. McGuire, David H. Cobden + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22391

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Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications p.274

Frequency combs produced by solitons in silicon-based optical microresonators are used to transmit data streams of more than 50 terabits per second in telecommunication wavelength bands.

Pablo Marin-Palomo, Juned N. Kemal, Maxim Karpov, Arne Kordts, Joerg Pfeifle, Martin H. P. Pfeiffer, Philipp Trocha, Stefan Wolf, Victor Brasch, Miles H. Anderson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22387

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New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens p.289

New human fossils from Jebel Irhoud (Morocco) document the earliest evolutionary stage of Homo sapiens and display modern conditions of the face and mandible combined with more primative features of the neurocranium.

Jean-Jacques Hublin, Abdelouahed Ben-Ncer, Shara E. Bailey, Sarah E. Freidline, Simon Neubauer, Matthew M. Skinner, Inga Bergmann, Adeline Le Cabec, Stefano Benazzi, Katerina Harvati + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22336

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The age of the hominin fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and the origins of the Middle Stone Age p.293

Thermoluminescence dating of fire-heated flint artefacts, and directly associated newly discovered remains of Homo sapiens, indicate that the Middle Stone Age site of Jebel Irhoud in Morocco is 383–247 thousand years old.

Daniel Richter, Rainer Grün, Renaud Joannes-Boyau, Teresa E. Steele, Fethi Amani, Mathieu Rué, Paul Fernandes, Jean-Paul Raynal, Denis Geraads, Abdelouahed Ben-Ncer + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22335

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Dynamic corticostriatal activity biases social bonding in monogamous female prairie voles p.297

In a prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) model of social bonding, a functional circuit from the prefrontal cortex to nucleus accumbens is dynamically modulated to enhance females’ affiliative behaviour towards a partner.

Elizabeth A. Amadei, Zachary V. Johnson, Yong Jun Kwon, Aaron C. Shpiner, Varun Saravanan, Wittney D. Mays, Steven J. Ryan, Hasse Walum, Donald G. Rainnie, Larry J. Young + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22381

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The B-cell receptor controls fitness of MYC-driven lymphoma cells via GSK3β inhibition p.302

Similar to resting mature B cells, where the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) controls cellular survival, surface BCR expression is conserved in most mature B-cell lymphomas. The identification of activating BCR mutations and the growth disadvantage upon BCR knockdown of cells of certain lymphoma entities has led to the view that BCR signalling is required for tumour cell survival. Consequently, the BCR signalling machinery has become an established target in the therapy of B-cell malignancies. Here we study the effects of BCR ablation on MYC-driven mouse B-cell lymphomas and compare them with observations in human Burkitt lymphoma. Whereas BCR ablation does not, per se, significantly affect lymphoma growth, BCR-negative (BCR) tumour cells rapidly disappear in the presence of their BCR-expressing (BCR+) counterparts in vitro and in vivo. This requires neither cellular contact nor factors released by BCR+ tumour cells. Instead, BCR loss induces the rewiring of central carbon metabolism, increasing the sensitivity of receptor-less lymphoma cells to nutrient restriction. The BCR attenuates glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) activity to support MYC-controlled gene expression. BCR tumour cells exhibit increased GSK3β activity and are rescued from their competitive growth disadvantage by GSK3β inhibition. BCR lymphoma variants that restore competitive fitness normalize GSK3β activity after constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway, commonly through Ras mutations. Similarly, in Burkitt lymphoma, activating RAS mutations may propagate immunoglobulin-crippled tumour cells, which usually represent a minority of the tumour bulk. Thus, while BCR expression enhances lymphoma cell fitness, BCR-targeted therapies may profit from combinations with drugs targeting BCR tumour cells.

Gabriele Varano, Simon Raffel, Martina Sormani, Federica Zanardi, Silvia Lonardi, Christin Zasada, Laura Perucho, Valentina Petrocelli, Andrea Haake, Albert K. Lee + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22353

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Human GLP-1 receptor transmembrane domain structure in complex with allosteric modulators p.312

Crystal structures of the human GLP-1 receptor in complex with two negative allosteric modulators reveal a common binding pocket, and, together with mutagenesis and modelling studies, further our understanding of the receptor activation mechanism.

Gaojie Song, Dehua Yang, Yuxia Wang, Chris de Graaf, Qingtong Zhou, Shanshan Jiang, Kaiwen Liu, Xiaoqing Cai, Antao Dai, Guangyao Lin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22378

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