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A firmer grip on the Hubbard model p.414

The Hubbard model describes the behaviour of interacting quantum particles, but many of its properties remain unknown. A system of ultracold atoms could provide the key to determining the model's underlying physics. See Letter p.462

Thierry Giamarchi

doi: 10.1038/545414a

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Education for stem cells p.415

Haematopoietic stem cells give rise to all lineages of blood cell, and their production in vitro has been a long-sought goal of stem-cell biology. Two groups now achieve this feat through different means. See Articles p.432 & p.439

Carolina Guibentif & Berthold Göttgens

doi: 10.1038/nature22496

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Personalized test tracks cancer relapse p.417

Genomic analysis of lung-tumour evolution has been used to create personalized blood tests that enable successful clinical monitoring for early signs of cancer relapse — a promising step on the road to precision medicine. See Article p.446

Alberto Bardelli

doi: 10.1038/545417a

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Quasars signpost massive galaxies p.418

The neighbourhoods of extremely bright astronomical objects called quasars in the early Universe have been incompletely probed. Observations suggest that these regions harbour some of the most massive known galaxies. See Letter p.457

Rychard Bouwens

doi: 10.1038/545418a

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An immunity boost combats crop disease p.420

Plants precisely express some immune regulators by controlling the translation of messenger RNA into protein. This insight enabled a disease-resistant rice to be engineered without compromised productivity. See Letters p.487 & p.491

Julia Bailey-Serres & Wenbo Ma

doi: 10.1038/nature22497

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Global health estimated over two decades p.421

Reliably measuring global health is a huge challenge. Four papers published in 1997 laid foundations for future global-health estimates, but, despite subsequent advances, better integration of data systems and models is still needed.

Peter Byass

doi: 10.1038/545421a

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Review

Articles

Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells p.432

Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell conversion of human pluripotent stem cell-derived haemogenic endothelium.

Ryohichi Sugimura, Deepak Kumar Jha, Areum Han, Clara Soria-Valles, Edroaldo Lummertz da Rocha, Yi-Fen Lu, Jeremy A. Goettel, Erik Serrao, R. Grant Rowe, Mohan Malleshaiah + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22370

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Conversion of adult endothelium to immunocompetent haematopoietic stem cells p.439

The authors reprogram in vitro endothelial cells from adult mice into engraftable haematopoietic stem cells that display single-cell and multilineage properties, are capable of long-term self-renewal and can reconstitute T cell adaptive immune function.

Raphael Lis, Charles C. Karrasch, Michael G. Poulos, Balvir Kunar, David Redmond, Jose G. Barcia Duran, Chaitanya R. Badwe, William Schachterle, Michael Ginsberg, Jenny Xiang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22326

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Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early-stage lung cancer evolution p.446

Circulating tumour DNA profiling in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer can be used to track single-nucleotide variants in plasma to predict lung cancer relapse and identify tumour subclones involved in the metastatic process.

Christopher Abbosh, Nicolai J. Birkbak, Gareth A. Wilson, Mariam Jamal-Hanjani, Tudor Constantin, Raheleh Salari, John Le Quesne, David A. Moore, Selvaraju Veeriah, Rachel Rosenthal + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22364

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Chromatin states define tumour-specific T cell dysfunction and reprogramming p.452

Epigenetic programming of T cells in solid tumours from a functional to a dysfunctional state occurs in two phases, and only the first phase is reversible.

Mary Philip, Lauren Fairchild, Liping Sun, Ellen L. Horste, Steven Camara, Mojdeh Shakiba, Andrew C. Scott, Agnes Viale, Peter Lauer, Taha Merghoub + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22367

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Letters

Rapidly star-forming galaxies adjacent to quasars at redshifts exceeding 6 p.457

Four galaxies discovered near quasars at redshifts exceeding 6 have star-formation rates that are high enough to explain the massive elliptical galaxies known to exist at redshifts of about 4.

R. Decarli, F. Walter, B. P. Venemans, E. Bañados, F. Bertoldi, C. Carilli, X. Fan, E. P. Farina, C. Mazzucchelli, D. Riechers + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22358

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A cold-atom Fermi–Hubbard antiferromagnet p.462

An antiferromagnet with a correlation length that encompasses the whole system is created with the aid of quantum gas microscopy of cold atoms in an optical lattice.

Anton Mazurenko, Christie S. Chiu, Geoffrey Ji, Maxwell F. Parsons, Márton Kanász-Nagy, Richard Schmidt, Fabian Grusdt, Eugene Demler, Daniel Greif & Markus Greiner

doi: 10.1038/nature22362

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Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets p.467

Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NOx emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NOx emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.

Susan C. Anenberg, Joshua Miller, Ray Minjares, Li Du, Daven K. Henze, Forrest Lacey, Christopher S. Malley, Lisa Emberson, Vicente Franco, Zbigniew Klimont + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22086

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Identification of preoptic sleep neurons using retrograde labelling and gene profiling p.477

Identification of sleep-active and sleep-promoting neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus using neural projection tracing tools to target this population among a group of intermingled neurons, all with various functions.

Shinjae Chung, Franz Weber, Peng Zhong, Chan Lek Tan, Thuc Nghi Nguyen, Kevin T. Beier, Nikolai Hörmann, Wei-Cheng Chang, Zhe Zhang, Johnny Phong Do + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22350

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Evolutionary enhancement of Zika virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes p.482

A mutation that increases the secretion of Zika virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in infected hosts enhances the ability of the virus to infect its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti and might have contributed to the recent Zika epidemic.

Yang Liu, Jianying Liu, Senyan Du, Chao Shan, Kaixiao Nie, Rudian Zhang, Xiao-Feng Li, Renli Zhang, Tao Wang, Cheng-Feng Qin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22365

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PD-1 expression by tumour-associated macrophages inhibits phagocytosis and tumour immunity p.495

Mouse and human tumour-associated macrophages express PD-1, which increases with cancer stage and induces decreased phagocytosis by macrophages; by contrast, PD-L1 removal increases phagocytosis in vivo, decreases tumour burden and increases survival of mice.

Sydney R. Gordon, Roy L. Maute, Ben W. Dulken, Gregor Hutter, Benson M. George, Melissa N. McCracken, Rohit Gupta, Jonathan M. Tsai, Rahul Sinha, Daniel Corey + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22396

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Cancer progression by reprogrammed BCAA metabolism in myeloid leukaemia p.500

BCAT1, a cytosolic aminotransferase for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), is aberrantly activated and functionally required for disease progression in chronic myeloid leukaemia.

Ayuna Hattori, Makoto Tsunoda, Takaaki Konuma, Masayuki Kobayashi, Tamas Nagy, John Glushka, Fariba Tayyari, Daniel McSkimming, Natarajan Kannan, Arinobu Tojo + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22314

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Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks p.505

Affinity purification–mass spectrometry elucidates protein interaction networks and co-complexes to build, to our knowledge, the largest experimentally derived human protein interaction network so far, termed BioPlex 2.0.

Edward L. Huttlin, Raphael J. Bruckner, Joao A. Paulo, Joe R. Cannon, Lily Ting, Kurt Baltier, Greg Colby, Fana Gebreab, Melanie P. Gygi, Hannah Parzen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22366

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