Volume 545 Number 7652

Editorials

News

News Features

News & Views

Of rats and resilience p.32

A revised timeline for the arrival of settlers on Mangaia island in Polynesia reveals the resilience of this population, which overcame an environmental crisis through bold measures to support a sustainable society.

doi: 10.1038/545032a

Role of repeats in protein clearance p.33

Mutant proteins that contain stretches called polyQ repeats can misfold or form aggregates linked to neurodegeneration. It emerges that some polyQ-containing proteins regulate a process that degrades misfolded proteins. See Letter p.108

doi: 10.1038/nature22489

Nickel steps towards selectivity p.35

Hydrocarbons called alkenes are isolated from petroleum as mixtures of isomers, often making it hard to use them as reagents for synthesis. A reaction involving a migrating nickel atom offers a possible solution. See Letter p.84

doi: 10.1038/545035a

Chaperone protein gets personal p.36

Two studies of the molecular chaperone protein HSP90 reveal how complex traits can be shaped by genetic and environmental context. This work highlights the challenges of personalized medicine.

doi: 10.1038/nature22487

The 'pause' unpacked p.37

Short-term climate trends are sensitive to definitions, data and testing. This sensitivity underlies an alleged pause in global warming, and highlights the need for meaningful definitions to sustain claims that it was real. See Analysis p.41

doi: 10.1038/545037a

Advances in mini-brain technology p.39

Two studies integrate cutting-edge techniques to grow and analyse 3D cultured tissues that resemble human brain structures, enabling examination of how brain regions interact and neurons mature. See Articles p.48 & p.54

doi: 10.1038/545039a

Analysis

Articles

Assembly of functionally integrated human forebrain spheroids p.54

Human pluripotent stem cells were used to develop dorsal and ventral forebrain 3D spheroids, which can be assembled to study interneuron migration and to derive a functionally integrated forebrain system with cortical interneurons and glutamatergic neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature22330

Letters

Observed quantization of anyonic heat flow p.75

Quasiparticles in strongly interacting fractional quantum Hall systems carry heat according to the same quantization of thermal conductance as for particles in non-interacting systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature22052

Tumour ischaemia by interferon-γ resembles physiological blood vessel regression p.98

The relative contribution of the effector molecules produced by T cells to tumour rejection is unclear, but interferon-γ (IFNγ) is critical in most of the analysed models. Although IFNγ can impede tumour growth by acting directly on cancer cells, it must also act on the tumour stroma for effective rejection of large, established tumours. However, which stroma cells respond to IFNγ and by which mechanism IFNγ contributes to tumour rejection through stromal targeting have remained unknown. Here we use a model of IFNγ induction and an IFNγ–GFP fusion protein in large, vascularized tumours growing in mice that express the IFNγ receptor exclusively in defined cell types. Responsiveness to IFNγ by myeloid cells and other haematopoietic cells, including T cells or fibroblasts, was not sufficient for IFNγ-induced tumour regression, whereas responsiveness of endothelial cells to IFNγ was necessary and sufficient. Intravital microscopy revealed IFNγ-induced regression of the tumour vasculature, resulting in arrest of blood flow and subsequent collapse of tumours, similar to non-haemorrhagic necrosis in ischaemia and unlike haemorrhagic necrosis induced by tumour necrosis factor. The early events of IFNγ-induced tumour ischaemia resemble non-apoptotic blood vessel regression during development, wound healing or IFNγ-mediated, pregnancy-induced remodelling of uterine arteries. A better mechanistic understanding of how solid tumours are rejected may aid the design of more effective protocols for adoptive T-cell therapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature22311