네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

News

US science agencies face deep cuts in Trump budget p.471

The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institutes of Health are big losers — but planetary science at NASA stands to gain.

Sara Reardon, Jeff Tollefson, Alexandra Witze & Erin Ross

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21652

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News Features

News & Views

Dividing the dinosaurs p.494

The standard dinosaur evolutionary tree has two key branches: the 'bird-hipped' Ornithischia and the 'reptile-hipped' Saurischia. A revised tree challenges many ideas about the relationships between dinosaur groups. See Article p.501

Kevin Padian

doi: 10.1038/543494a

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Bacterial transmission tactics p.495

Genome sequencing of Mycobacterium abscessus strains that infect the lungs suggests a possible shift in the bacterium's mode of infection from environmental acquisition to human transmission. This finding has clinical implications.

Michael Strong & Rebecca M. Davidson

doi: 10.1038/543495a

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Vibrations mapped by an electron beam p.497

The vibrational excitations of nanostructures have been mapped using state-of-the-art electron microscopy. The results improve our understanding of these excitations, which will aid the design of nanostructures. See Letter p.529

Christian Colliex

doi: 10.1038/543497a

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A helping habitat for bumblebees p.498

A study showing the effects of land-use quality on the productivity of bumblebee colonies highlights the importance of resource availability across space and time in promoting survival over generations. See Letter p.547

Jeffrey D. Lozier

doi: 10.1038/nature21897

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Articles

A new hypothesis of dinosaur relationships and early dinosaur evolution p.501

Analysis of a wide range of dinosaurs and dinosauromorphs recovers a sister-taxon relationship between Ornithischia and Theropoda, calling for the redefinition of all the major clades within Dinosauria and the revival of the clade Ornithoscelida.

Matthew G. Baron, David B. Norman & Paul M. Barrett

doi: 10.1038/nature21700

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Autism gene Ube3a and seizures impair sociability by repressing VTA Cbln1 p.507

Increasing expression of the autism-associated gene Ube3a, either alone or in combination with seizures, not only impairs sociability in mice but also reduces expression of the synaptic organizer Cbln1 in the ventral tegmental area, thus weakening glutamatergic transmission.

Vaishnav Krishnan, David C. Stoppel, Yi Nong, Mark A. Johnson, Monica J. S. Nadler, Ekim Ozkaynak, Brian L. Teng, Ikue Nagakura, Fahim Mohammad, Michael A. Silva + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21678

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Root microbiota drive direct integration of phosphate stress and immunity p.513

In Arabidopsis thaliana, a genetic network that controls the phosphate stress response also influences the structure of the root microbiome community, even under non-stress phosphate conditions.

Gabriel Castrillo, Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira, Sur Herrera Paredes, Theresa F. Law, Laura de Lorenzo, Meghan E. Feltcher, Omri M. Finkel, Natalie W. Breakfield, Piotr Mieczkowski, Corbin D. Jones + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21417

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Complex multi-enhancer contacts captured by genome architecture mapping p.519

A technique called genome architecture mapping (GAM) involves sequencing DNA from a large number of thin nuclear cryosections to develop a map of genome organization without the limitations of existing 3C-based methods.

Robert A. Beagrie, Antonio Scialdone, Markus Schueler, Dorothee C. A. Kraemer, Mita Chotalia, Sheila Q. Xie, Mariano Barbieri, Inês de Santiago, Liron-Mark Lavitas, Miguel R. Branco + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21411

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Letters

Simultaneous tracking of spin angle and amplitude beyond classical limits p.525

Simultaneous precise measurement of the non-commuting observables spin angle and spin amplitude is achieved by directing the error due to quantum measurement back-action into an unmeasured spin component.

Giorgio Colangelo, Ferran Martin Ciurana, Lorena C. Bianchet, Robert J. Sewell & Morgan W. Mitchell

doi: 10.1038/nature21434

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Evidence for a Fe3+-rich pyrolitic lower mantle from (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite elasticity data p.543

The chemical composition of Earth’s lower mantle can be constrained by combining seismological observations with mineral physics elasticity measurements. However, the lack of laboratory data for Earth’s most abundant mineral, (Mg,Fe,Al)(Al,Fe,Si)O3 bridgmanite (also known as silicate perovskite), has hampered any conclusive result. Here we report single-crystal elasticity data on (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite (Mg0.9Fe0.1Si0.9Al0.1)O3 measured using high-pressure Brillouin spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our measurements show that the elastic behaviour of (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite is markedly different from the behaviour of the MgSiO3 endmember. We use our data to model seismic wave velocities in the top portion of the lower mantle, assuming a pyrolitic mantle composition and accounting for depth-dependent changes in iron partitioning between bridgmanite and ferropericlase. We find excellent agreement between our mineral physics predictions and the seismic Preliminary Reference Earth Model down to at least 1,200 kilometres depth, indicating chemical homogeneity of the upper and shallow lower mantle. A high Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio of about two in shallow-lower-mantle bridgmanite is required to match seismic data, implying the presence of metallic iron in an isochemical mantle. Our calculated velocities are in increasingly poor agreement with those of the lower mantle at depths greater than 1,200 kilometres, indicating either a change in bridgmanite cation ordering or a decrease in the ferric iron content of the lower mantle.

A. Kurnosov, H. Marquardt, D. J. Frost, T. Boffa Ballaran & L. Ziberna

doi: 10.1038/nature21390

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Bumblebee family lineage survival is enhanced in high-quality landscapes p.547

Analysis of three wild-caught bumblebee species shows that family lineage survival and persistence is significantly increased between successive colony cycle stages with the proportion of high-value foraging habitat near the natal colony.

Claire Carvell, Andrew F. G. Bourke, Stephanie Dreier, Stephen N. Freeman, Sarah Hulmes, William C. Jordan, John W. Redhead, Seirian Sumner, Jinliang Wang & Matthew S. Heard

doi: 10.1038/nature21709

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Early antibody therapy can induce long-lasting immunity to SHIV p.559

Early administration of broadly neutralizing antibodies in a macaque SHIV infection model is associated with very low levels of persistent viraemia, which leads to the establishment of T-cell immunity and resultant long-term infection control.

Yoshiaki Nishimura, Rajeev Gautam, Tae-Wook Chun, Reza Sadjadpour, Kathryn E. Foulds, Masashi Shingai, Florian Klein, Anna Gazumyan, Jovana Golijanin, Mitzi Donaldson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21435

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CD32a is a marker of a CD4 T-cell HIV reservoir harbouring replication-competent proviruses p.564

CD32a expression is induced on the surface of HIV-1-infected quiescent CD4 T cells, and could thus be used as a biomarker to facilitate future study of how the virus persists in cellular reservoirs in infected hosts.

Benjamin Descours, Gaël Petitjean, José-Luis López-Zaragoza, Timothée Bruel, Raoul Raffel, Christina Psomas, Jacques Reynes, Christine Lacabaratz, Yves Levy, Olivier Schwartz + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21710

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DND1 maintains germline stem cells via recruitment of the CCR4–NOT complex to target mRNAs p.568

The vertebrate-conserved and germline-specific RNA-binding protein DND1 recruits the CCR4–NOT deadenylase complex to destabilize its mRNA targets and is required for the maintenance of germline stem cells.

Masashi Yamaji, Miki Jishage, Cindy Meyer, Hemant Suryawanshi, Evan Der, Misaki Yamaji, Aitor Garzia, Pavel Morozov, Sudhir Manickavel, Hannah L. McFarland + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21690

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RNA m6A methylation regulates the ultraviolet-induced DNA damage response p.573

Cell proliferation and survival require the faithful maintenance and propagation of genetic information, which are threatened by the ubiquitous sources of DNA damage present intracellularly and in the external environment. A system of DNA repair, called the DNA damage response, detects and repairs damaged DNA and prevents cell division until the repair is complete. Here we report that methylation at the 6 position of adenosine (m6A) in RNA is rapidly (within 2 min) and transiently induced at DNA damage sites in response to ultraviolet irradiation. This modification occurs on numerous poly(A)+ transcripts and is regulated by the methyltransferase METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3) and the demethylase FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated protein). In the absence of METTL3 catalytic activity, cells showed delayed repair of ultraviolet-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine adducts and elevated sensitivity to ultraviolet, demonstrating the importance of m6A in the ultraviolet-responsive DNA damage response. Multiple DNA polymerases are involved in the ultraviolet response, some of which resynthesize DNA after the lesion has been excised by the nucleotide excision repair pathway, while others participate in trans-lesion synthesis to allow replication past damaged lesions in S phase. DNA polymerase κ (Pol κ), which has been implicated in both nucleotide excision repair and trans-lesion synthesis, required the catalytic activity of METTL3 for immediate localization to ultraviolet-induced DNA damage sites. Importantly, Pol κ overexpression qualitatively suppressed the cyclobutane pyrimidine removal defect associated with METTL3 loss. Thus, we have uncovered a novel function for RNA m6A modification in the ultraviolet-induced DNA damage response, and our findings collectively support a model in which m6A RNA serves as a beacon for the selective, rapid recruitment of Pol κ to damage sites to facilitate repair and cell survival.

Yang Xiang, Benoit Laurent, Chih-Hung Hsu, Sigrid Nachtergaele, Zhike Lu, Wanqiang Sheng, Chuanyun Xu, Hao Chen, Jian Ouyang, Siqing Wang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21671

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