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Manipulation of the manipulators p.182

Wolbachia bacteria infect insects and can cause mating incompatibilities, an outcome that is used to fight insect-transmitted disease. The proposed genes responsible illuminate this process and the disease-control mechanisms. See Letter p.243

William Sullivan & Scott L. O'Neill

doi: 10.1038/nature21509

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More uses for genomic junk p.183

It emerges that nascent non-coding RNAs transcribed from regulatory DNA sequences called enhancers bind to the enzyme CBP to promote its activity locally. In turn, the activities of CBP stimulate further enhancer transcription.

Karen Adelman & Emily Egan

doi: 10.1038/543183a

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Marching to a different quantum beat p.185

Periodic oscillations are common in nature but they generally decay or fall out of phase. Two experiments have found evidence for a Floquet time crystal, which is characterized by persistent in-phase oscillations. See Letters p.217 & p. 221

Chetan Nayak

doi: 10.1038/543185a

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Reading the future of leukaemia p.186

The identification of the regulatory protein ENL as essential to an aggressive form of leukaemia provides insight into transcriptional regulation and highlights potential avenues for therapy. See Letters p.265 & p.270

Alex W. Wilkinson & Or Gozani

doi: 10.1038/nature21894

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Digital maps illuminate ancient trade routes p.188

How did the relationship between human societies and their surrounding terrain shape the formation of long-distance trade networks such as the Silk Road? Digital mapping and computer modelling offer insights. See Article p.193

Michael J. Harrower & Ioana A. Dumitru

doi: 10.1038/543188a

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Single-atom data storage p.189

The ultimate limit of classical data storage is a single-atom magnetic bit. Researchers have now achieved the writing and reading of individual atoms whose magnetic information can be retained for several hours. See Letter p.226

Roberta Sessoli

doi: 10.1038/543189a

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The chronicles of T-cell exhaustion p.190

T cells of the immune system often fail to target cancer cells because they enter a dysfunctional state known as exhaustion. Molecular analysis of T-cell exhaustion provides insights into the clinical use of these cells.

Robert A. Amezquita & Susan M. Kaech

doi: 10.1038/nature21508

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Articles

Nomadic ecology shaped the highland geography of Asia’s Silk Roads p.193

The authors use modelling to show that the network of trading routes known as the Silk Road emerged from hundreds of years of interactions between pastoralists as they moved their herds and flocks between higher and lower elevations in generally mountainous regions.

Michael D. Frachetti, C. Evan Smith, Cynthia M. Traub & Tim Williams

doi: 10.1038/nature21696

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An atlas of human long non-coding RNAs with accurate 5′ ends p.199

A catalogue of human long non-coding RNA genes and their expression profiles across samples from major human primary cell types, tissues and cell lines.

Chung-Chau Hon, Jordan A. Ramilowski, Jayson Harshbarger, Nicolas Bertin, Owen J. L. Rackham, Julian Gough, Elena Denisenko, Sebastian Schmeier, Thomas M. Poulsen, Jessica Severin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21374

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Autophagy maintains the metabolism and function of young and old stem cells p.205

Loss of autophagy increases the accumulation of mitochondria and the respiration status of haematopoietic stem cells, which perturbs their self-renewal and regeneration activities, and promotes cellular aging.

Theodore T. Ho, Matthew R. Warr, Emmalee R. Adelman, Olivia M. Lansinger, Johanna Flach, Evgenia V. Verovskaya, Maria E. Figueroa & Emmanuelle Passegué

doi: 10.1038/nature21388

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TIRR regulates 53BP1 by masking its histone methyl-lysine binding function p.211

A new protein, Tudor interacting repair regulator (TIRR), affects DNA repair by masking the chromatin interaction domain of 53BP1, thereby preventing its recruitment to double-strand breaks.

Pascal Drané, Marie-Eve Brault, Gaofeng Cui, Khyati Meghani, Shweta Chaubey, Alexandre Detappe, Nishita Parnandi, Yizhou He, Xiao-Feng Zheng, Maria Victoria Botuyan + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21358

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Letters

Observation of a discrete time crystal p.217

A time crystal is a state of matter that shows robust oscillations in time, and although forbidden in equilibrium, a discrete time crystal has now been observed in a periodically driven quantum system.

J. Zhang, P. W. Hess, A. Kyprianidis, P. Becker, A. Lee, J. Smith, G. Pagano, I.-D. Potirniche, A. C. Potter, A. Vishwanath + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21413

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Observation of discrete time-crystalline order in a disordered dipolar many-body system p.221

Discrete time-crystalline order is observed in a driven, disordered ensemble of about one million dipolar spin impurities in diamond at room temperature, and is shown to be very stable to perturbations.

Soonwon Choi, Joonhee Choi, Renate Landig, Georg Kucsko, Hengyun Zhou, Junichi Isoya, Fedor Jelezko, Shinobu Onoda, Hitoshi Sumiya, Vedika Khemani + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21426

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Reading and writing single-atom magnets p.226

A two-bit magnetic memory is demonstrated, based on the magnetic states of individual holmium atoms, which are read and written in a scanning tunnelling microscope set-up and are stable over many hours.

Fabian D. Natterer, Kai Yang, William Paul, Philip Willke, Taeyoung Choi, Thomas Greber, Andreas J. Heinrich & Christopher P. Lutz

doi: 10.1038/nature21371

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Amplified stimulated emission in upconversion nanoparticles for super-resolution nanoscopy p.229

Super-resolution optical microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion effects can now be performed at much lower light intensities than before by using bright upconversion emission from thulium-doped nanoparticles.

Yujia Liu, Yiqing Lu, Xusan Yang, Xianlin Zheng, Shihui Wen, Fan Wang, Xavier Vidal, Jiangbo Zhao, Deming Liu, Zhiguang Zhou + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21366

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Earth’s first stable continents did not form by subduction p.239

Phase equilibria modelling of rocks from Western Australia confirms that the ancient continental crust could have formed by multistage melting of basaltic ‘parents’ along high geothermal gradients—a process incompatible with modern-style subduction.

Tim E. Johnson, Michael Brown, Nicholas J. Gardiner, Christopher L. Kirkland & R. Hugh Smithies

doi: 10.1038/nature21383

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Prophage WO genes recapitulate and enhance Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility p.243

The discovery of two genes encoded by prophage WO from Wolbachia that functionally recapitulate and enhance cytoplasmic incompatibility in arthropods is the first inroad in solving the genetic basis of reproductive parasitism.

Daniel P. LePage, Jason A. Metcalf, Sarah R. Bordenstein, Jungmin On, Jessamyn I. Perlmutter, J. Dylan Shropshire, Emily M. Layton, Lisa J. Funkhouser-Jones, John F. Beckmann & Seth R. Bordenstein

doi: 10.1038/nature21391

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Zika virus protection by a single low-dose nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccination p.248

A single, low-dose intradermal immunization with lipid-nanoparticle-encapsulated nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the pre-membrane and envelope glycoproteins of Zika virus protects both mice and rhesus macaques against infection and elicits rapid and long-lasting neutralizing antibody responses.

Norbert Pardi, Michael J. Hogan, Rebecca S. Pelc, Hiromi Muramatsu, Hanne Andersen, Christina R. DeMaso, Kimberly A. Dowd, Laura L. Sutherland, Richard M. Scearce, Robert Parks + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21428

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Survival of tissue-resident memory T cells requires exogenous lipid uptake and metabolism p.252

FABP4 and FABP5 are important for the maintenance, longevity and function of CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells, which use oxidative metabolism of exogenous free fatty acids to persist in tissues and to mediate protective immunity.

Youdong Pan, Tian Tian, Chang Ook Park, Serena Y. Lofftus, Shenglin Mei, Xing Liu, Chi Luo, John T. O’Malley, Ahmed Gehad, Jessica E. Teague + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21379

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The molecular architecture of lamins in somatic cells p.261

Cryo-electron tomography reveals a detailed view of the structural organization of the lamin meshwork within the lamina of the mammalian cell nucleus.

Yagmur Turgay, Matthias Eibauer, Anne E. Goldman, Takeshi Shimi, Maayan Khayat, Kfir Ben-Harush, Anna Dubrovsky-Gaupp, K. Tanuj Sapra, Robert D. Goldman & Ohad Medalia

doi: 10.1038/nature21382

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ENL links histone acetylation to oncogenic gene expression in acute myeloid leukaemia p.265

The chromatin-reader protein ENL regulates oncogenic programs in acute myeloid leukaemia by binding via its YEATS domain to acetylated histones on the promoters of actively transcribed genes and recruiting the transcriptional machinery.

Liling Wan, Hong Wen, Yuanyuan Li, Jie Lyu, Yuanxin Xi, Takayuki Hoshii, Julia K. Joseph, Xiaolu Wang, Yong-Hwee E. Loh, Michael A. Erb + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21687

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Transcription control by the ENL YEATS domain in acute leukaemia p.270

ENL, identified in a genome-scale loss-of-function screen as a crucial requirement for proliferation of acute leukaemia, is required for leukaemic gene expression, and its YEATS chromatin-reader domain is essential for leukaemic growth.

Michael A. Erb, Thomas G. Scott, Bin E. Li, Huafeng Xie, Joshiawa Paulk, Hyuk-Soo Seo, Amanda Souza, Justin M. Roberts, Shiva Dastjerdi, Dennis L. Buckley + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21688

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