네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

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News Features

Human migration p.21

A special issue explores the intersection of science and migration.

doi: 10.1038/543021a

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News & Views

Lessons from tooth enamel p.42

A remarkable composite material has been made that mimics the structure of tooth enamel. This achievement opens up the exploration of new composite materials and of computational methods that reliably predict their properties. See Letter p.95

Horacio D. Espinosa & Rafael Soler-Crespo

doi: 10.1038/543042a

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Stretched divisions p.43

Many organ surfaces are covered by a protective epithelial-cell layer. It emerges that such layers are maintained by cell stretching that triggers cell division mediated by the force-sensitive ion-channel protein Piezo1. See Letter p.118

Carl-Philipp Heisenberg

doi: 10.1038/nature21502

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Subduction undone p.44

Rocks are subjected to increased pressure as they are buried during subduction. Contrary to general belief, a study suggests that peak pressures recorded in subducted rocks might not reflect their maximum burial depths.

Kip V. Hodges

doi: 10.1038/543044a

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Commonality with cancer p.45

Ageing is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease caused by the rupture of inflamed cholesterol plaques in arteries. It emerges that this might be partly due to genetic mutations that cause cancerous changes in white blood cells.

Alan R. Tall & Ross L. Levine

doi: 10.1038/nature21505

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A solid more fluid than a fluid p.47

A supersolid is a paradoxical and elusive state of matter that has been sought for more than 60 years. Two experiments have now observed its characteristic signatures in ultracold quantum matter. See Letters p.87 & p.91

Kaden R. A. Hazzard

doi: 10.1038/543047a

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T-cell tweaks to target tumours p.48

Immune cells known as T cells can destroy tumour cells, but their clinical use requires complex preparation and the cells can lose effectiveness over time. A new approach might improve the efficiency of T-cell therapy. See Letter p.113

Marcela V. Maus

doi: 10.1038/nature21506

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Origin of a key player in methane biosynthesis p.49

The biosynthesis of a coenzyme in the microbial production of methane has been determined — completing the biosynthetic pathways for the family of compounds that includes chlorophyll, haem and vitamin B12. See Article p.78

Tadhg P. Begley

doi: 10.1038/nature21507

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Review

Articles

Evidence for early life in Earth’s oldest hydrothermal vent precipitates p.60

Perhaps the earliest known signs of life have been found in Quebec, where features such as haematite tubes suggest that filamentous microbes lived around hydrothermal vents at least 3,770 million years ago.

Matthew S. Dodd, Dominic Papineau, Tor Grenne, John F. Slack, Martin Rittner, Franco Pirajno, Jonathan O’Neil & Crispin T. S. Little

doi: 10.1038/nature21377

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Whole-genome landscape of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours p.65

The genomes of 102 primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours have been sequenced, revealing mutations in genes with functions such as chromatin remodelling, DNA damage repair, mTOR activation and telomere maintenance, and a greater-than-expected contribution from germ line mutations.

Aldo Scarpa, David K. Chang, Katia Nones, Vincenzo Corbo, Ann-Marie Patch, Peter Bailey, Rita T. Lawlor, Amber L. Johns, David K. Miller, Andrea Mafficini + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21063

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Intragenic DNA methylation prevents spurious transcription initiation p.72

Intragenic DNA methylation, dependent on Dnmt3b, protects the gene body from spurious entry of RNA Polymerase II and aberrant transcription initiation events.

Francesco Neri, Stefania Rapelli, Anna Krepelova, Danny Incarnato, Caterina Parlato, Giulia Basile, Mara Maldotti, Francesca Anselmi & Salvatore Oliviero

doi: 10.1038/nature21373

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Elucidation of the biosynthesis of the methane catalyst coenzyme F430 p.78

The enzymes and pathway involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme F430 are identified, completing our understanding of how members of the cyclic modified tetrapyrrole family are constructed.

Simon J. Moore, Sven T. Sowa, Christopher Schuchardt, Evelyne Deery, Andrew D. Lawrence, José Vazquez Ramos, Susan Billig, Claudia Birkemeyer, Peter T. Chivers, Mark J. Howard + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21427

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Letters

The response of relativistic outflowing gas to the inner accretion disk of a black hole p.83

X-ray detection of an ultrafast outflow of gas is strongly linked with energy emission from the inner accretion disk of a black hole, suggesting that X-rays ionize the outflowing disk wind.

Michael L. Parker, Ciro Pinto, Andrew C. Fabian, Anne Lohfink, Douglas J. K. Buisson, William N. Alston, Erin Kara, Edward M. Cackett, Chia-Ying Chiang, Thomas Dauser + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21385

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Abiotic tooth enamel p.95

Nanometre-scale columnar structures in tooth enamel inspire novel nanocomposites containing layers of vertically aligned nanowires, produced by layer-by-layer fabrication and combining high values of both storage modulus and energy dissipation.

Bongjun Yeom, Trisha Sain, Naida Lacevic, Daria Bukharina, Sang-Ho Cha, Anthony M. Waas, Ellen M. Arruda & Nicholas A. Kotov

doi: 10.1038/nature21410

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Prefrontal cortex output circuits guide reward seeking through divergent cue encoding p.103

Neurons that project from the prefrontal cortex to either the nucleus accumbens or paraventricular thalamus receive different inputs, differentially encode reward-predictive cues, and have opposing effects on reward seeking during cue presentation.

James M. Otis, Vijay M. K. Namboodiri, Ana M. Matan, Elisa S. Voets, Emily P. Mohorn, Oksana Kosyk, Jenna A. McHenry, J. Elliott Robinson, Shanna L. Resendez, Mark A. Rossi + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21376

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Complement drives glucosylceramide accumulation and tissue inflammation in Gaucher disease p.108

Complement-activating glycosylceramide-specific autoantibodies drive a self-propagating cycle of glycosylceramide accumulation and inflammation in Gaucher disease.

Manoj K. Pandey, Thomas A. Burrow, Reena Rani, Lisa J. Martin, David Witte, Kenneth D. Setchell, Mary A. Mckay, Albert F. Magnusen, Wujuan Zhang, Benjamin Liou + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21368

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Targeting a CAR to the TRAC locus with CRISPR/Cas9 enhances tumour rejection p.113

Introducing chimeric antigen receptors into the endogenous T-cell receptor locus reduces tonic signalling, averts accelerated T-cell differentiation and delays T-cell exhaustion, leading to enhanced function and anti-tumour efficacy compared to random integrations.

Justin Eyquem, Jorge Mansilla-Soto, Theodoros Giavridis, Sjoukje J. C. van der Stegen, Mohamad Hamieh, Kristen M. Cunanan, Ashlesha Odak, Mithat Gönen & Michel Sadelain

doi: 10.1038/nature21405

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Mechanical stretch triggers rapid epithelial cell division through Piezo1 p.118

The stretch-activated channel Piezo1 controls homeostatic epithelial cell numbers by activating cells to divide rapidly when under stretch strain from low density, and by activating cells to extrude and die when cells are under crowding strain.

S. A. Gudipaty, J. Lindblom, P. D. Loftus, M. J. Redd, K. Edes, C. F. Davey, V. Krishnegowda & J. Rosenblatt

doi: 10.1038/nature21407

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Extrachromosomal oncogene amplification drives tumour evolution and genetic heterogeneity p.122

Circular extrachromosomal DNA is found in nearly half of human cancers of a wide variety of histologic types, increasing the copy number of driver oncogenes and intratumoral heterogeneity more effectively than chromosomal amplification and contributing to tumor evolution.

Kristen M. Turner, Viraj Deshpande, Doruk Beyter, Tomoyuki Koga, Jessica Rusert, Catherine Lee, Bin Li, Karen Arden, Bing Ren, David A. Nathanson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21356

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Untimely expression of gametogenic genes in vegetative cells causes uniparental disomy p.126

Uniparental disomy in fission yeast is triggered by aberrant expression of gametogenic genes in vegetative cells, and is associated with the activation of meiotic cohesin Rec8 in cells with defects in the RNA interference machinery.

H. Diego Folco, Venkata R. Chalamcharla, Tomoyasu Sugiyama, Gobi Thillainadesan, Martin Zofall, Vanivilasini Balachandran, Jothy Dhakshnamoorthy, Takeshi Mizuguchi & Shiv I. S. Grewal

doi: 10.1038/nature21372

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Light-induced structural changes and the site of O=O bond formation in PSII caught by XFEL p.131

A new approach, time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography, is used to view the intermediate states of a photosystem complex following illumination, shedding light on proton transfer and O=O bond formation.

Michihiro Suga, Fusamichi Akita, Michihiro Sugahara, Minoru Kubo, Yoshiki Nakajima, Takanori Nakane, Keitaro Yamashita, Yasufumi Umena, Makoto Nakabayashi, Takahiro Yamane + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21400

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