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Secrets of life in a spoonful of blood p.156

The intricate development of the fetus is yielding its long-held secrets to state-of-the-art molecular technologies that can make use of the mother's blood.

doi: 10.1038/542156a

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News & Views

Interspecies pancreas transplants p.168

A mouse pancreas grown in a rat controls blood-sugar levels when transplanted into a mouse that models type 1 diabetes. This achievement provides a tantalizing glimpse of how organs could be grown for therapeutic use. See Article p.191

Qiao Zhou

doi: 10.1038/nature21490

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Ocean circulation drove increase in CO2 uptake p.169

The ocean's uptake of carbon dioxide increased during the 2000s. Models reveal that this was driven primarily by weak circulation in the upper ocean, solving a mystery of ocean science. See Letter p.215

Sara E. Mikaloff Fletcher

doi: 10.1038/542169a

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Tiny fossils in the animal family tree p.170

Newly discovered microscopic fossils might shed light on the early evolution of the deuterostomes, the animal group that includes vertebrates. But more work is needed to resolve the fossils' place in the deuterostome tree. See Letter p.228

Imran A. Rahman

doi: 10.1038/nature21493

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Dark matter remains elusive p.172

WIMPs, or weakly interacting massive particles, are the leading candidates for dark matter, the 'missing' mass in the Universe. An experiment has obtained no evidence for such particles, despite an impressive increase in sensitivity.

Xiangdong Ji

doi: 10.1038/542172a

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In search of lost time p.173

Electrical stimulation of the human brain does not enhance memory, according to a report that is in apparent conflict with earlier work. But this discrepancy could enable deeper insight into brain dynamics by stimulating basic research.

Noah P. Young & Karl Deisseroth

doi: 10.1038/nature21497

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Organelle formation from scratch p.174

Cellular organelles called peroxisomes aid metabolism, and defective peroxisome formation can cause disease. It emerges that peroxisomes can form de novo from the fusion of vesicles derived from two distinct organelle types.

Ewald H. Hettema & Stephen J. Gould

doi: 10.1038/nature21496

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Intermediate-mass black hole found p.175

The existence of medium-sized black holes has long been debated. Such an object has now been discovered in the centre of a dense cluster of stars, potentially enhancing our understanding of all black holes. See Letter p.203

Kayhan Gültekin

doi: 10.1038/542175a

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Review

Articles

Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height p.186

Data from over 700,000 individuals reveal the identity of 83 sequence variants that affect human height, implicating new candidate genes and pathways as being involved in growth.

Eirini Marouli, Mariaelisa Graff, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Ken Sin Lo, Andrew R. Wood, Troels R. Kjaer, Rebecca S. Fine, Yingchang Lu, Claudia Schurmann, Heather M. Highland + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21039

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Interspecies organogenesis generates autologous functional islets p.191

The authors inject mouse pluripotent stem cells into pancreatogenesis-disabled rat blastocysts and thereby generate rats with mouse pancreata from which the islets, when transplanted into mice, can provide a long-term cure for symptoms of diabetes, without continuous immunosuppression.

Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Hideyuki Sato, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Teppei Goto, Hiromasa Hara, Makoto Sanbo, Naoaki Mizuno, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Ayaka Yanagida, Ayumi Umino + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21070

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An Argonaute phosphorylation cycle promotes microRNA-mediated silencing p.197

The application of genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9 screening coupled with a fluorescent reporter to interrogate the microRNA pathway reveals that continual transient phosphorylation of Argonaute 2 is required to maintain the global efficiency of microRNA-mediated repression.

Ryan J. Golden, Beibei Chen, Tuo Li, Juliane Braun, Hema Manjunath, Xiang Chen, Jiaxi Wu, Vanessa Schmid, Tsung-Cheng Chang, Florian Kopp + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21025

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Letters

Symmetry-protected collisions between strongly interacting photons p.206

Excitations to Rydberg states in a gas of ultracold atoms are used to produce a robust, nonlinear phase shift of exactly π/2 between two photons, which is protected against variations in experimental parameters by a symmetry of the system.

Jeff D. Thompson, Travis L. Nicholson, Qi-Yu Liang, Sergio H. Cantu, Aditya V. Venkatramani, Soonwon Choi, Ilya A. Fedorov, Daniel Viscor, Thomas Pohl, Mikhail D. Lukin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature20823

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Ecosystem restoration strengthens pollination network resilience and function p.223

Removal of invasive exotic shrubs from mountaintop communities increased the number of pollinators and positively altered pollinator behaviour, which enhanced native fruit production, indicating that the degradation of ecosystem functions is partly reversible.

Christopher N. Kaiser-Bunbury, James Mougal, Andrew E. Whittington, Terence Valentin, Ronny Gabriel, Jens M. Olesen & Nico Blüthgen

doi: 10.1038/nature21071

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Gamma oscillations organize top-down signalling to hypothalamus and enable food seeking p.232

Coordinated gamma oscillations in the lateral hypothalamus, lateral septum and medial prefrontal cortex are shown to drive food-seeking behaviour in mice independently of nutritional need and to organize firing of feeding behaviour-related hypothalamic neurons.

Marta Carus-Cadavieco, Maria Gorbati, Li Ye, Franziska Bender, Suzanne van der Veldt, Christin Kosse, Christoph Börgers, Soo Yeun Lee, Charu Ramakrishnan, Yubin Hu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21066

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New CRISPR–Cas systems from uncultivated microbes p.237

Using a metagenomic approach, three types of CRISPR–Cas systems have been discovered in uncultivated bacterial and archaeal hosts from a variety of different environments.

David Burstein, Lucas B. Harrington, Steven C. Strutt, Alexander J. Probst, Karthik Anantharaman, Brian C. Thomas, Jennifer A. Doudna & Jillian F. Banfield

doi: 10.1038/nature21059

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