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Phages make a group decision p.466

It emerges that phage viruses, which infect bacteria, use small peptides to communicate with each other. This observation of intercellular communication also reveals how viruses make a key developmental decision. See Article p.488

Alan R. Davidson

doi: 10.1038/nature21118

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Optical transition seen in antihydrogen p.467

Precise measurements of antimatter systems might cast light on why the Universe is dominated by matter. The observation of a transition in an antihydrogen atom heralds the next wave of high-precision antimatter studies. See Letter p.506

Stefan Ulmer

doi: 10.1038/541467a

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Earth's building blocks p.468

Earth grew by the accretion of meteoritic material. High-precision isotopic data reveal how the composition of this material changed over time, forcing revision of models of our planet's formation. See Letters p.521 & p.525

Richard W. Carlson

doi: 10.1038/541468a

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Versatile gel assembly on a chip p.470

Materials called hydrogels have potential applications as scaffolds for tissue engineering, but methods are needed to assemble them into complex structures that mimic those found in nature. Just such a method has now been reported.

Shoji Takeuchi

doi: 10.1038/nature21491

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Unconventional translation in cancer p.471

Translation of RNA into proteins is a fundamental process for all cells. Analysis of a mouse model of skin cancer uncovers an atypical RNA-translation program that has a vital role in tumour formation. See Article p.494

Marianne Terndrup Pedersen & Kim B. Jensen

doi: 10.1038/nature21115

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Review

Chiral quantum optics p.473

Peter Lodahl, Sahand Mahmoodian, Søren Stobbe, Arno Rauschenbeutel, Philipp Schneeweiss, Jürgen Volz, Hannes Pichler & Peter Zoller

doi: 10.1038/nature21037

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Articles

Neurotoxic reactive astrocytes are induced by activated microglia p.481

A reactive astrocyte subtype termed A1 is induced after injury or disease of the central nervous system and subsequently promotes the death of neurons and oligodendrocytes.

Shane A. Liddelow, Kevin A. Guttenplan, Laura E. Clarke, Frederick C. Bennett, Christopher J. Bohlen, Lucas Schirmer, Mariko L. Bennett, Alexandra E. Münch, Won-Suk Chung, Todd C. Peterson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21029

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Communication between viruses guides lysis–lysogeny decisions p.488

Some phages—viruses that infect bacteria—encode peptides that are secreted from infected cells and that, beyond a certain threshold, stimulate other viruses to switch from the lytic (killing the host cell) to lysogenic (dormant) phase.

Zohar Erez, Ida Steinberger-Levy, Maya Shamir, Shany Doron, Avigail Stokar-Avihail, Yoav Peleg, Sarah Melamed, Azita Leavitt, Alon Savidor, Shira Albeck + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21049

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Translation from unconventional 5′ start sites drives tumour initiation p.494

The translation of upstream open reading frames in skin tumour models protects some cancer-related mRNAs from global reductions in protein synthesis during the early stages of tumour initiation, suggesting that unconventional translation has a crucial role in tumorigenesis.

Ataman Sendoel, Joshua G. Dunn, Edwin H. Rodriguez, Shruti Naik, Nicholas C. Gomez, Brian Hurwitz, John Levorse, Brian D. Dill, Daniel Schramek, Henrik Molina + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21036

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Structure of a CLC chloride ion channel by cryo-electron microscopy p.500

Some CLC proteins are channels that conduct chloride ions passively, whereas others are active co-transporters, a difference that has been hard to understand given their high degree of sequence homology; now, cryo-electron microscopy is used to determine the structure of a mammalian CLC channel, shedding light on this question.

Eunyong Park, Ernest B. Campbell & Roderick MacKinnon

doi: 10.1038/nature20812

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Letters

Observation of the 1S–2S transition in trapped antihydrogen OPEN p.506

The 1S–2S transition in magnetically trapped atoms of antihydrogen is observed, and its frequency is shown to be consistent with that expected for hydrogen.

M. Ahmadi, B. X. R. Alves, C. J. Baker, W. Bertsche, E. Butler, A. Capra, C. Carruth, C. L. Cesar, M. Charlton, S. Cohen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21040

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High-spatial-resolution mapping of catalytic reactions on single particles p.511

The chemical conversion of N-heterocyclic carbene molecules attached to catalytic particles is monitored at high spatial resolution using synchrotron-radiation-based infrared nanospectroscopy.

Chung-Yeh Wu, William J. Wolf, Yehonatan Levartovsky, Hans A. Bechtel, Michael C. Martin, F. Dean Toste & Elad Gross

doi: 10.1038/nature20795

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Compensatory water effects link yearly global land CO2 sink changes to temperature p.516

A study of how temperature and water availability fluctuations affect the carbon balance of land ecosystems reveals different controls on local and global scales, implying that spatial climate covariation drives the global carbon cycle response.

Martin Jung, Markus Reichstein, Christopher R. Schwalm, Chris Huntingford, Stephen Sitch, Anders Ahlström, Almut Arneth, Gustau Camps-Valls, Philippe Ciais, Pierre Friedlingstein + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature20780

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Evolutionary genomics of the cold-adapted diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus OPEN p.536

The genome of the Southern Ocean phytoplankton Fragilariopsis cylindrus differs markedly from the genomes of its more temperate relatives, with divergent alleles being differentially expressed in environmentally specific conditions such as freezing and darkness.

Thomas Mock, Robert P. Otillar, Jan Strauss, Mark McMullan, Pirita Paajanen, Jeremy Schmutz, Asaf Salamov, Remo Sanges, Andrew Toseland, Ben J. Ward + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature20803

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The Hippo kinases LATS1 and 2 control human breast cell fate via crosstalk with ERα p.541

Cell fate perturbations underlie many human diseases, including breast cancer. Unfortunately, the mechanisms by which breast cell fate are regulated are largely unknown. The mammary gland epithelium consists of differentiated luminal epithelial and basal myoepithelial cells, as well as undifferentiated stem cells and more restricted progenitors. Breast cancer originates from this epithelium, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie breast epithelial hierarchy remain ill-defined. Here, we use a high-content confocal image-based short hairpin RNA screen to identify tumour suppressors that regulate breast cell fate in primary human breast epithelial cells. We show that ablation of the large tumour suppressor kinases (LATS) 1 and 2 (refs 5, 6), which are part of the Hippo pathway, promotes the luminal phenotype and increases the number of bipotent and luminal progenitors, the proposed cells-of-origin of most human breast cancers. Mechanistically, we have identified a direct interaction between Hippo and oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) signalling. In the presence of LATS, ERα was targeted for ubiquitination and Ddb1–cullin4-associated-factor 1 (DCAF1)-dependent proteasomal degradation. Absence of LATS stabilized ERα and the Hippo effectors YAP and TAZ (hereafter YAP/TAZ), which together control breast cell fate through intrinsic and paracrine mechanisms. Our findings reveal a non-canonical (that is, YAP/TAZ-independent) effect of LATS in the regulation of human breast cell fate.

Adrian Britschgi, Stephan Duss, Sungeun Kim, Joana Pinto Couto, Heike Brinkhaus, Shany Koren, Duvini De Silva, Kirsten D. Mertz, Daniela Kaup, Zsuzsanna Varga + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature20829

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Structural basis for ArfA–RF2-mediated translation termination on mRNAs lacking stop codons p.546

The structure of the bacterial ribosome stalled on a truncated mRNA in complex with ArfA and the release factor RF2 is presented, revealing how ArfA recruits RF2 to the ribosome and induces conformational changes within RF2 to enable translation termination in the absence of a stop codon.

Paul Huter, Claudia Müller, Bertrand Beckert, Stefan Arenz, Otto Berninghausen, Roland Beckmann & Daniel N. Wilson

doi: 10.1038/nature20821

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Mechanistic insights into the alternative translation termination by ArfA and RF2 p.550

The structure of the bacterial 70S ribosome in complex with ArfA, the release factor RF2, a short non-stop mRNA and a cognate P-site tRNA is presented, revealing how ArfA and RF2 facilitate alternative translation termination of the non-stop ribosomal complex using a stop-codon surrogate mechanism.

Chengying Ma, Daisuke Kurita, Ningning Li, Yan Chen, Hyouta Himeno & Ning Gao

doi: 10.1038/nature20822

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