The trend of turning universities into businesses is limiting research freedoms in traditionally liberal institutes in northern Europe. It is time for scientists to regain lost ground.
Scott Pruitt has consistently opposed attempts to reduce pollution.
A Nature paper explores this unusual creature from the inside out.
Artificial-intelligence algorithms can learn a lot from playing immersive 3D video games.
Italy’s youngest leader failed to walk the talk when it came to boosting research, academics say.
Elsevier’s CiteScore uses a larger database — and provides different results for the quality of journals.
The University of California, Berkeley, and the Broad Institute are vying for lucrative rights to the gene-editing system.
His plans for the job are a mystery, but past presidents have used their chief scientific aide in a number of ways.
How to rouse the immune system against tumours has proved elusive.
He has influenced leaders from Melinda Gates to Fidel Castro. Now, he is on a mission to save the people from their preconceived ideas.
News & Views
Structures of two chemokine receptor proteins in complex with small molecules reveal a previously unknown binding pocket that could be a drug target for treating a range of diseases involving this receptor family. See Letters p.458 & p.462
A method has been devised that allows a ketoreductase enzyme to catalyse reactions other than its natural ones. The key is to excite the enzyme's cofactor using light – an approach that might work for other enzymes. See Letter p.414
Can simple genetic risk profiles be identified for complex diseases? The development of a gene-expression profile for acute myeloid leukaemia suggests that they can, and that they may improve prognosis prediction. See Letter p.433
High-resolution satellite mapping of Earth's surface water during the past 32 years reveals changes in the planet's water systems, including the influence of natural cycles and human activities. See Letter p.418
Activation of aged muscle stem cells induces changes in DNA packaging that lead to expression of the gene Hoxa9. This reactivates embryonic signalling pathways, restricting the cells' ability to repair injured muscle. See Letter p.428
Retinal-cell transplants restore vision in mouse models of retinal degeneration. It emerges that the transplant leads to an exchange of material between donor and host cells — not to donor-cell integration into the retina, as had been presumed.
Here, the genome sequence of the tiger tail seahorse is reported and comparative genomic analyses with other ray-finned fishes are used to explore the genetic basis of the unique morphology and reproductive system of the seahorse.
A new method in which strong electric fields are applied to a protein crystal while collecting time-resolved X-ray diffraction patterns is able to follow the mechanical motions of all the constituent atoms, with implications for molecular biology and drug discovery.
Observations of the outflow associated with the TMC1A protostellar system reveal that the ‘disk wind’ model correctly explains how material is ejected from protostars.
All of the characteristics of the square-ice model are observed in an artificial square-ice system in which the two sublattices of nanomagnets are slightly vertically separated.
Photoexcitation of a catalytic enzyme’s co-factor is shown to change the reactivity of the enzyme, enabling it to carry out a non-natural enantioselective dehalogenation of lactone molecules.
A freely available dataset produced from three million Landsat satellite images reveals substantial changes in the distribution of global surface water over the past 32 years and their causes, from climate change to human actions.
Gene expression analysis in brain tissue from individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that the transcription factor SOX5 contributes to an ASD-associated reduction in transcriptional differences between brain areas and indicates that common transcriptomic changes occur in different forms of ASD.
Changes in active chromatin marks in old activated satellite cells lead to Hoxa9 activation, which induces the expression of developmental pathway genes with a known inhibitory effect on satellite cell function and muscle regeneration in aged mice.
A rapid gene signature test (LSC17) that captures stem cell expression programs in acute myeloid leukaemia patients at diagnosis is associated with therapy response and survival, facilitating initial treatment stratification.
Infection of male mice with Zika virus caused testicular and epididymal damage, reduction in sex hormone levels, destruction of germ and somatic cells in the testis, loss of mature sperm and reduction in fertility.
Monoclonal Zika-virus-neutralizing human antibodies can protect against maternal–fetal transmission, infection and disease.
The most prevalent route of HIV-1 infection is across mucosal tissues after sexual contact. Langerhans cells (LCs) belong to the subset of dendritic cells (DCs) that line the mucosal epithelia of vagina and foreskin and have the ability to sense and induce immunity to invading pathogens. Anatomical and functional characteristics make LCs one of the primary targets of HIV-1 infection. Notably, LCs form a protective barrier against HIV-1 infection and transmission. LCs restrict HIV-1 infection through the capture of HIV-1 by the C-type lectin receptor Langerin and subsequent internalization into Birbeck granules. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of HIV-1 restriction in LCs remains unknown. Here we show that human E3-ubiquitin ligase tri-partite-containing motif 5α (TRIM5α) potently restricts HIV-1 infection of LCs but not of subepithelial DC-SIGN+ DCs. HIV-1 restriction by TRIM5α was thus far considered to be reserved to non-human primate TRIM5α orthologues, but our data strongly suggest that human TRIM5α is a cell-specific restriction factor dependent on C-type lectin receptor function. Our findings highlight the importance of HIV-1 binding to Langerin for the routeing of HIV-1 into the human TRIM5α-mediated restriction pathway. TRIM5α mediates the assembly of an autophagy-activating scaffold to Langerin, which targets HIV-1 for autophagic degradation and prevents infection of LCs. By contrast, HIV-1 binding to DC-SIGN+ DCs leads to disassociation of TRIM5α from DC-SIGN, which abrogates TRIM5α restriction. Thus, our data strongly suggest that restriction by human TRIM5α is controlled by C-type-lectin-receptor-dependent uptake of HIV-1, dictating protection or infection of human DC subsets. Therapeutic interventions that incorporate C-type lectin receptors and autophagy-targeting strategies could thus provide cell-mediated resistance to HIV-1 in humans.
The structures of three intermediate states of photosystem II, which is crucial for photosynthesis, have been solved at room temperature, shedding new light on this process.
The crystal structure of CCR2 chemokine receptor in a complex with two different antagonists—one orthosteric the other allosteric—which functionally cooperate to inhibit CCR2.
The crystal structure of the CCR9 chemokine receptor in complex with vercirnon at 2.8 Å resolution.
The crystal structures of ISWI, the catalytic subunit of several chromatin remodelling complexes, and its complex with a histone H4 peptide are reported.