Volume 539 Number 7628
Prejudices about research in particular countries harms the openness required for successful international relationships.
Proposals to streamline infrastructure projects are headed in the wrong direction.
Biologists in particular are writing their papers in a less formal style.
Barrage of proposals would allow developers to sidestep environmental reviews.
Government’s first Autumn Statement could reveal how it regards science.
Biomedical funders worldwide are adopting the US agency’s free Relative Citation Ratio to analyse grant outcomes.
World Health Organization asks research initiatives to focus on translating their findings into clinical benefits.
Sub-Saharan project could one day help ecosystems to resist climate change and improve agriculture.
Computerized search of trial registry lists worst offenders.
Three things are needed to turn the tide on the costliest crisis in health care.
News & Views
A nanoscale imaging method that uses ultrashort light pulses to initiate and follow the motion of a single molecule adsorbed on a solid surface opens a window onto the physical and chemical dynamics of molecules on surfaces. See Letter p.263
In many mammals, the gene Ostn is expressed in muscles and bones. The discovery that the primate OSTN gene has been repurposed to also act in neurons provides clues to how humans evolved their cognitive abilities. See Article p.242
Expression of a blood-cancer-associated genetic mutation in the non-blood cells of the bone marrow is sufficient to cause blood cancer in mice. This finding could point to new approaches to treating an often-fatal disease. See Letter p.304
The discovery in 1936 that rats respond to various damaging stimuli with a general response that involves alarm, resistance and exhaustion launched the discipline of stress research.
Interactions between the magnetic dipoles of dysprosium atoms in an ultracold gas can produce a 'self-bound' droplet. This provides a useful isolated system for probing the quantum-mechanical properties of ultracold gases. See Letter p.259
Two monkeys subjected to a spinal-cord injury that paralysed one leg have regained the ability to walk, thanks to technology that re-establishes communication between the brain and spinal cord. See Letter p.284
The extinct Andreolepis, an early fish that is close to the common ancestor of all bony fish and land vertebrates, shed its teeth by basal resportion—the earliest example of this mode of tooth replacement.
Osteocrin is a non-neuronal secreted protein in mice that has been evolutionarily repurposed to act as a neuronal development factor in primates.
Transplanted embryonic neurons in mice mature and achieve adult-like properties within 4–8 weeks, receiving appropriate inputs and establishing stimulus-selective responses.
Natural isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes differ in their sensitivity to the anti-exploratory pheromone icas#9, yielding two distinct foraging strategies that possess different survival advantages depending on environmental conditions such as food distribution.
A self-bound quantum droplet of magnetic atoms is observed in a trap-free levitation field.
Watching a single molecule move calls for measurements that combine ultrafast temporal resolution with atomic spatial resolution; this is now shown to be possible by combining scanning tunnelling microscopy with lightwave electronics, through a technique that involves removing a single electron from the highest occupied orbital of a single pentacene molecule in a time window shorter than an oscillation cycle of light.
Catalytic alkylation of C–H bonds is achieved via homolysis of N–H bonds of N-alkyl amides through proton-coupled electron transfer.
Carbon–carbon (C–C) bond formation is paramount in the synthesis of biologically relevant molecules, modern synthetic materials and commodity chemicals such as fuels and lubricants. Traditionally, the presence of a functional group is required at the site of C–C bond formation. Strategies that allow C–C bond formation at inert carbon–hydrogen (C–H) bonds enable access to molecules that would otherwise be inaccessible and the development of more efficient syntheses of complex molecules. Here we report a method for the formation of C–C bonds by directed cleavage of traditionally non-reactive C–H bonds and their subsequent coupling with readily available alkenes. Our methodology allows for amide-directed selective C–C bond formation at unactivated sp3 C–H bonds in molecules that contain many such bonds that are seemingly indistinguishable. Selectivity arises through a relayed photoredox-catalysed oxidation of a nitrogen–hydrogen bond. We anticipate that our findings will serve as a starting point for functionalization at inert C–H bonds through a strategy involving hydrogen-atom transfer.
About a third of the sediment delivery of the Mekong River is shown to be associated with rainfall generated by tropical cyclones, suggesting that future delta stability will be strongly moderated by changes to tropical cyclone intensity, frequency and track.
Warratyi rock shelter shows evidence of human occupation approximately 50,000 years ago, development of tool use and cultural innovation, and interaction with now-extinct megafauna in arid Australia.
A wireless brain–spine interface is presented that enables macaques with a spinal cord injury to regain locomotor movements of a paralysed leg.
In mice, glutamatergic globus pallidus neurons projecting to the lateral habenula (GPh neurons) bi-directionally encode positive and negative prediction error signals that are critical for outcome evaluation and are driven by a subset of basal ganglia circuits.
Mice with macrophages deficient in fatty acid synthase exhibit lower levels of diabetes-related insulin resistance and inflammation, qualities that are restored on addition of exogenous cholesterol.
Using a protocol that recapitulates both meiosis and oocyte growth in vitro, the authors induce mouse pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into fully functional oocytes that can be fertilized and generate viable offspring, thereby recapitulating the full mammalian female germline cycle in a dish.
Mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 affect cells in the bone marrow environment, which leads to aberrant activation of resident haematopoietic stem cells and thereby contributes to the development of leukaemia.
Single-cell RNA-seq in human gliomas identifies cycling cancer stem cells and their differentiated glial-like cell progeny.