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How to defeat dementia p.156

Three things are needed to turn the tide on the costliest crisis in health care.

Elie Dolgin

doi: 10.1038/539156a

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News & Views

Single-molecule instant replay p.170

A nanoscale imaging method that uses ultrashort light pulses to initiate and follow the motion of a single molecule adsorbed on a solid surface opens a window onto the physical and chemical dynamics of molecules on surfaces. See Letter p.263

Nicholas Camillone

doi: 10.1038/539170a

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Genomic remodelling in the primate brain p.171

In many mammals, the gene Ostn is expressed in muscles and bones. The discovery that the primate OSTN gene has been repurposed to also act in neurons provides clues to how humans evolved their cognitive abilities. See Article p.242

Justine Kupferman & Franck Polleux

doi: 10.1038/539171a

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Bad neighbours cause bad blood p.173

Expression of a blood-cancer-associated genetic mutation in the non-blood cells of the bone marrow is sufficient to cause blood cancer in mice. This finding could point to new approaches to treating an often-fatal disease. See Letter p.304

Gordon Chan & Benjamin G. Neel

doi: 10.1038/nature19479

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Eighty years of stress p.175

The discovery in 1936 that rats respond to various damaging stimuli with a general response that involves alarm, resistance and exhaustion launched the discipline of stress research.

George Fink

doi: 10.1038/nature20473

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A strange kind of liquid p.176

Interactions between the magnetic dipoles of dysprosium atoms in an ultracold gas can produce a 'self-bound' droplet. This provides a useful isolated system for probing the quantum-mechanical properties of ultracold gases. See Letter p.259

Bruno Laburthe-Tolra

doi: 10.1038/539176a

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Neural interfaces take another step forward p.177

Two monkeys subjected to a spinal-cord injury that paralysed one leg have regained the ability to walk, thanks to technology that re-establishes communication between the brain and spinal cord. See Letter p.284

Andrew Jackson

doi: 10.1038/539177a

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Articles

Evolution of Osteocrin as an activity-regulated factor in the primate brain p.242

Osteocrin is a non-neuronal secreted protein in mice that has been evolutionarily repurposed to act as a neuronal development factor in primates.

Bulent Ataman, Gabriella L. Boulting, David A. Harmin, Marty G. Yang, Mollie Baker-Salisbury, Ee-Lynn Yap, Athar N. Malik, Kevin Mei, Alex A. Rubin, Ivo Spiegel + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature20111

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Balancing selection shapes density-dependent foraging behaviour p.254

Natural isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes differ in their sensitivity to the anti-exploratory pheromone icas#9, yielding two distinct foraging strategies that possess different survival advantages depending on environmental conditions such as food distribution.

Joshua S. Greene, Maximillian Brown, May Dobosiewicz, Itzel G. Ishida, Evan Z. Macosko, Xinxing Zhang, Rebecca A. Butcher, Devin J. Cline, Patrick T. McGrath & Cornelia I. Bargmann

doi: 10.1038/nature19848

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Letters

Tracking the ultrafast motion of a single molecule by femtosecond orbital imaging p.263

Watching a single molecule move calls for measurements that combine ultrafast temporal resolution with atomic spatial resolution; this is now shown to be possible by combining scanning tunnelling microscopy with lightwave electronics, through a technique that involves removing a single electron from the highest occupied orbital of a single pentacene molecule in a time window shorter than an oscillation cycle of light.

Tyler L. Cocker, Dominik Peller, Ping Yu, Jascha Repp & Rupert Huber

doi: 10.1038/nature19816

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Amide-directed photoredox-catalysed C–C bond formation at unactivated sp3 C–H bonds p.272

Carbon–carbon (C–C) bond formation is paramount in the synthesis of biologically relevant molecules, modern synthetic materials and commodity chemicals such as fuels and lubricants. Traditionally, the presence of a functional group is required at the site of C–C bond formation. Strategies that allow C–C bond formation at inert carbon–hydrogen (C–H) bonds enable access to molecules that would otherwise be inaccessible and the development of more efficient syntheses of complex molecules. Here we report a method for the formation of C–C bonds by directed cleavage of traditionally non-reactive C–H bonds and their subsequent coupling with readily available alkenes. Our methodology allows for amide-directed selective C–C bond formation at unactivated sp3 C–H bonds in molecules that contain many such bonds that are seemingly indistinguishable. Selectivity arises through a relayed photoredox-catalysed oxidation of a nitrogen–hydrogen bond. We anticipate that our findings will serve as a starting point for functionalization at inert C–H bonds through a strategy involving hydrogen-atom transfer.

John C. K. Chu & Tomislav Rovis

doi: 10.1038/nature19810

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Fluvial sediment supply to a mega-delta reduced by shifting tropical-cyclone activity p.276

About a third of the sediment delivery of the Mekong River is shown to be associated with rainfall generated by tropical cyclones, suggesting that future delta stability will be strongly moderated by changes to tropical cyclone intensity, frequency and track.

Stephen E. Darby, Christopher R. Hackney, Julian Leyland, Matti Kummu, Hannu Lauri, Daniel R. Parsons, James L. Best, Andrew P. Nicholas & Rolf Aalto

doi: 10.1038/nature19809

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Cultural innovation and megafauna interaction in the early settlement of arid Australia p.280

Warratyi rock shelter shows evidence of human occupation approximately 50,000 years ago, development of tool use and cultural innovation, and interaction with now-extinct megafauna in arid Australia.

Giles Hamm, Peter Mitchell, Lee J. Arnold, Gavin J. Prideaux, Daniele Questiaux, Nigel A. Spooner, Vladimir A. Levchenko, Elizabeth C. Foley, Trevor H. Worthy, Birgitta Stephenson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature20125

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A brain–spine interface alleviating gait deficits after spinal cord injury in primates p.284

A wireless brain–spine interface is presented that enables macaques with a spinal cord injury to regain locomotor movements of a paralysed leg.

Marco Capogrosso, Tomislav Milekovic, David Borton, Fabien Wagner, Eduardo Martin Moraud, Jean-Baptiste Mignardot, Nicolas Buse, Jerome Gandar, Quentin Barraud, David Xing + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature20118

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A basal ganglia circuit for evaluating action outcomes p.289

In mice, glutamatergic globus pallidus neurons projecting to the lateral habenula (GPh neurons) bi-directionally encode positive and negative prediction error signals that are critical for outcome evaluation and are driven by a subset of basal ganglia circuits.

Marcus Stephenson-Jones, Kai Yu, Sandra Ahrens, Jason M. Tucciarone, Aile N. van Huijstee, Luis A. Mejia, Mario A. Penzo, Lung-Hao Tai, Linda Wilbrecht & Bo Li

doi: 10.1038/nature19845

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Reconstitution in vitro of the entire cycle of the mouse female germ line p.299

Using a protocol that recapitulates both meiosis and oocyte growth in vitro, the authors induce mouse pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into fully functional oocytes that can be fertilized and generate viable offspring, thereby recapitulating the full mammalian female germline cycle in a dish.

Orie Hikabe, Nobuhiko Hamazaki, Go Nagamatsu, Yayoi Obata, Yuji Hirao, Norio Hamada, So Shimamoto, Takuya Imamura, Kinichi Nakashima, Mitinori Saitou + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature20104

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Leukaemogenic effects of Ptpn11 activating mutations in the stem cell microenvironment p.304

Mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 affect cells in the bone marrow environment, which leads to aberrant activation of resident haematopoietic stem cells and thereby contributes to the development of leukaemia.

Lei Dong, Wen-Mei Yu, Hong Zheng, Mignon L. Loh, Silvia T. Bunting, Melinda Pauly, Gang Huang, Muxiang Zhou, Hal E. Broxmeyer, David T. Scadden + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature20131

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Single-cell RNA-seq supports a developmental hierarchy in human oligodendroglioma p.309

Single-cell RNA-seq in human gliomas identifies cycling cancer stem cells and their differentiated glial-like cell progeny.

Itay Tirosh, Andrew S. Venteicher, Christine Hebert, Leah E. Escalante, Anoop P. Patel, Keren Yizhak, Jonathan M. Fisher, Christopher Rodman, Christopher Mount, Mariella G. Filbin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature20123

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