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Stones that could cause ripples p.34

Monkeys have been observed pounding stones and unintentionally forming sharp-edged, tool-like fragments. This deliberate breakage raises questions about the evolution of intentional stone modification. See Letter p.85

Hélène Roche

doi: 10.1038/nature19484

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Telomere-lengthening mechanism revealed p.35

Shortening of the ends of chromosomes limits a cell's lifespan. Some cancer cells avoid this fate through a mechanism called alternative lengthening of telomeres, molecular details of which have now been defined. See Article p.54

Caitlin M. Roake & Steven E. Artandi

doi: 10.1038/nature19483

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Turbulence in a quantum gas p.36

The discovery of a cascade of sound waves across many wavelengths in an ultracold atomic gas advances our understanding of turbulence in fluids governed by quantum mechanics. See Letter p.72

Brian P. Anderson

doi: 10.1038/539036a

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Phosphate on, rubbish out p.38

A previously unknown way in which cells mark proteins for destruction has been found in bacteria — phosphorylation of the amino acid arginine targets proteins for degradation by protease enzymes. See Article p.48

Arti Tripathi & Susan Gottesman

doi: 10.1038/539038a

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Sound and meaning in the world's languages p.39

The sounds of words that represent particular meanings are usually thought to vary arbitrarily across languages. However, a large-scale study of languages finds that some associations between sound and meaning are widespread.

W. Tecumseh Fitch

doi: 10.1038/nature20474

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Axions exposed p.40

Physicists are hunting for a particle called the axion that could solve two major puzzles in fundamental physics. An ambitious study calculates the expected mass of this particle, which might reshape the experimental searches. See Letter p.69

Maria Paola Lombardo

doi: 10.1038/539040a

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Articles

De novo phasing with X-ray laser reveals mosquito larvicide BinAB structure p.43

The structure of the bacterial toxin BinAB, which is used to combat mosquito-borne diseases, reveals pH-sensitive switches and carbohydrate-binding modules that may contribute to the larvicidal function of the toxin.

Jacques-Philippe Colletier, Michael R. Sawaya, Mari Gingery, Jose A. Rodriguez, Duilio Cascio, Aaron S. Brewster, Tara Michels-Clark, Robert H. Hice, Nicolas Coquelle, Sébastien Boutet + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19825

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Break-induced telomere synthesis underlies alternative telomere maintenance p.54

Alternative lengthening of telomeres in cancer cells is initiated by a specialized replisome and noncanonical homologous recombination at damaged telomeres, culminating in the synthesis of long tracts of telomere DNA.

Robert L. Dilley, Priyanka Verma, Nam Woo Cho, Harrison D. Winters, Anne R. Wondisford & Roger A. Greenberg

doi: 10.1038/nature20099

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Defining synonymous codon compression schemes by genome recoding p.59

REXER, a new method that allows long sections of DNA to be inserted or replaced in the genome of the bacterium Escherichia coli, is used to investigate codon replacement schemes for the generation of synthetic genomes.

Kaihang Wang, Julius Fredens, Simon F. Brunner, Samuel H. Kim, Tiongsun Chia & Jason W. Chin

doi: 10.1038/nature20124

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Letters

The formation of Charon’s red poles from seasonally cold-trapped volatiles p.65

The unusual dark red coloration of Charon’s northern polar cap is shown to be produced from hydrocarbons that are cold-trapped from Pluto’s escaping atmosphere during winter.

W. M. Grundy, D. P. Cruikshank, G. R. Gladstone, C. J. A. Howett, T. R. Lauer, J. R. Spencer, M. E. Summers, M. W. Buie, A. M. Earle, K. Ennico + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19340

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Calculation of the axion mass based on high-temperature lattice quantum chromodynamics p.69

The mass of the axion, a particle that is central to many dark-matter theories, is calculated via the equation of state of the Universe and the temperature dependence of the so-called topological susceptibility of quantum chromodynamics.

S. Borsanyi, Z. Fodor, J. Guenther, K.-H. Kampert, S. D. Katz, T. Kawanai, T. G. Kovacs, S. W. Mages, A. Pasztor, F. Pittler + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature20115

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Emergence of a turbulent cascade in a quantum gas p.72

The gradual development of a turbulent cascade in a weakly interacting homogeneous Bose gas is observed on application of a periodic driving force.

Nir Navon, Alexander L. Gaunt, Robert P. Smith & Zoran Hadzibabic

doi: 10.1038/nature20114

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Metal–organic frameworks as selectivity regulators for hydrogenation reactions p.76

The flavouring, perfume and pharmaceutical industries rely on the selective hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to generate unsaturated alcohols; here, a new type of highly selective catalyst is described in which platinum nanoparticles are sandwiched between a core and a shell of a metal−organic framework.

Meiting Zhao, Kuo Yuan, Yun Wang, Guodong Li, Jun Guo, Lin Gu, Wenping Hu, Huijun Zhao & Zhiyong Tang

doi: 10.1038/nature19763

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Wild monkeys flake stone tools p.85

Wild capuchin monkeys in Brazil deliberately break stones, unintentionally producing flakes similar to the ancient sharp-edged flakes characterized as intentionally produced Pliocene–Pleistocene hominin tools, although why they do so remains unclear.

Tomos Proffitt, Lydia V. Luncz, Tiago Falótico, Eduardo B. Ottoni, Ignacio de la Torre & Michael Haslam

doi: 10.1038/nature20112

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Evolution of Hoxa11 regulation in vertebrates is linked to the pentadactyl state p.89

The mutually exclusive expression of the Hoxa11 and Hoxa13 genes is required for pentadactyl (five-digit) limbs and is proposed to have contributed to the transition from several digits polydactyl (several-digit) limbs in the earliest tetrapods.

Yacine Kherdjemil, Robert L. Lalonde, Rushikesh Sheth, Annie Dumouchel, Gemma de Martino, Kyriel M. Pineault, Deneen M. Wellik, H. Scott Stadler, Marie-Andrée Akimenko & Marie Kmita

doi: 10.1038/nature19813

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Olfactory receptor pseudo-pseudogenes p.93

Drosophila sechellia, a species closely related to the model species Drosophila melanogaster, bypasses a premature stop codon in neuronal cells to express a functional olfactory receptor protein from an assumed pseudogene template.

Lucia L. Prieto-Godino, Raphael Rytz, Benoîte Bargeton, Liliane Abuin, J. Roman Arguello, Matteo Dal Peraro & Richard Benton

doi: 10.1038/nature19824

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Single-cell RNA-seq identifies a PD-1hi ILC progenitor and defines its development pathway p.102

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) functionally resemble T lymphocytes in cytotoxicity and cytokine production but lack antigen-specific receptors, and they are important regulators of immune responses and tissue homeostasis. ILCs are generated from common lymphoid progenitors, which are subsequently committed to innate lymphoid lineages in the α-lymphoid progenitor, early innate lymphoid progenitor, common helper innate lymphoid progenitor and innate lymphoid cell progenitor compartments. ILCs consist of conventional natural killer cells and helper-like cells (ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3). Despite recent advances, the cellular heterogeneity, developmental trajectory and signalling dependence of ILC progenitors are not fully understood. Here, using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) of mouse bone marrow progenitors, we reveal ILC precursor subsets, delineate distinct ILC development stages and pathways, and report that high expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1hi) marked a committed ILC progenitor that was essentially identical to an innate lymphoid cell progenitor. Our data defined PD-1hiIL-25Rhi as an early checkpoint in ILC2 development, which was abolished by deficiency in the zinc-finger protein Bcl11b but restored by IL-25R overexpression. Similar to T lymphocytes, PD-1 was upregulated on activated ILCs. Administration of a PD-1 antibody depleted PD-1hi ILCs and reduced cytokine levels in an influenza infection model in mice, and blocked papain-induced acute lung inflammation. These results provide a perspective for exploring PD-1 and its ligand (PD-L1) in immunotherapy, and allow effective manipulation of the immune system for disease prevention and therapy.

Yong Yu, Jason C. H. Tsang, Cui Wang, Simon Clare, Juexuan Wang, Xi Chen, Cordelia Brandt, Leanne Kane, Lia S. Campos, Liming Lu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature20105

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On-target efficacy of a HIF-2α antagonist in preclinical kidney cancer models p.107

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma, the most common form of kidney cancer, is usually linked to inactivation of the pVHL tumour suppressor protein and consequent accumulation of the HIF-2α transcription factor (also known as EPAS1). Here we show that a small molecule (PT2399) that directly inhibits HIF-2α causes tumour regression in preclinical mouse models of primary and metastatic pVHL-defective clear cell renal cell carcinoma in an on-target fashion. pVHL-defective clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell lines display unexpectedly variable sensitivity to PT2399, however, suggesting the need for predictive biomarkers to be developed to use this approach optimally in the clinic.

Hyejin Cho, Xinlin Du, James P. Rizzi, Ella Liberzon, Abhishek A. Chakraborty, Wenhua Gao, Ingrid Carvo, Sabina Signoretti, Richard K. Bruick, John A. Josey + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19795

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Targeting renal cell carcinoma with a HIF-2 antagonist p.112

The HIF-2 antagonist PT2399 is tested in mice bearing tumourgrafts derived from human renal cell cancers to demonstrate its efficacy, identify markers of sensitivity and characterize its effects.

Wenfang Chen, Haley Hill, Alana Christie, Min Soo Kim, Eboni Holloman, Andrea Pavia-Jimenez, Farrah Homayoun, Yuanqing Ma, Nirav Patel, Paul Yell + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19796

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Atomic model for the membrane-embedded VO motor of a eukaryotic V-ATPase p.118

The structure of the VO subcomplex of yeast V-ATPase, solved by electron cryomicroscopy, reveals a new subunit and suggests a mechanism for the translocation of protons across membranes.

Mohammad T. Mazhab-Jafari, Alexis Rohou, Carla Schmidt, Stephanie A. Bueler, Samir Benlekbir, Carol V. Robinson & John L. Rubinstein

doi: 10.1038/nature19828

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