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Can we open the black box of AI? p.20

Artificial intelligence is everywhere. But before scientists trust it, they first need to understand how machines learn.

Davide Castelvecchi

doi: 10.1038/538020a

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News & Views

Cobalt gets in shape p.44

Solid cobalt-based catalysts are used commercially to convert carbon monoxide and hydrogen into synthetic fuels. It emerges that much more valuable chemicals can be produced by using a different form of cobalt catalyst. See Letter p.84

Michael Claeys

doi: 10.1038/538044a

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Acidic shield puts a chink in p53's armour p.45

Underactivity of the transcription factor p53 can lead to tumour development. The discovery that the SET protein binds to and inhibits p53 points to a way to unleash the tumour suppressor's activity. See Letter p.118

Michelle C. Barton

doi: 10.1038/nature19469

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Rebalancing the global methane budget p.46

A database of the carbon-isotope 'fingerprints' of methane has been used to constrain the contributions of different sources to the global methane budget. The surprising results have implications for climate prediction. See Letter p.88

Grant Allen

doi: 10.1038/538046a

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Search for neutrinoless double-β decay p.48

Neutrinos are much lighter than the other constituents of matter. One explanation for this could be that neutrinos are their own antiparticles and belong to a new class of 'Majorana' particle. An experiment sets strong constraints on this scenario.

Giorgio Gratta

doi: 10.1038/nature19473

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Climate and the peopling of the world p.49

The human dispersal out of Africa that populated the world was probably paced by climate changes. This is the inference drawn from computer modelling of climate variability during the time of early human migration. See Letter p.92

Peter B. deMenocal & Chris Stringer

doi: 10.1038/nature19471

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Review

Circuit-based interrogation of sleep control p.51

Weber and Dan review our understanding of the neural circuits controlling sleep, focusing on the advances in measurement and manipulation of neuronal activity and circuit tracing from genetically defined cell types.

Franz Weber & Yang Dan

doi: 10.1038/nature19773

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Articles

Structural insight into the role of the Ton complex in energy transduction p.60

Structural studies shed light on the function and stoichiometry of the Ton complex, which harnesses the proton motive force across the bacterial inner membrane to transduce energy to the outer membrane.

Hervé Celia, Nicholas Noinaj, Stanislav D. Zakharov, Enrica Bordignon, Istvan Botos, Monica Santamaria, Travis J. Barnard, William A. Cramer, Roland Lloubes & Susan K. Buchanan

doi: 10.1038/nature19757

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Letters

High-molecular-weight organic matter in the particles of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko p.72

The COSIMA mass spectrometer on the Rosetta spacecraft has analysed the solid organic matter found in dust particles emitted by comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko; this matter is similar to the insoluble organic matter extracted from carbonaceous chondrites such as the Murchison meteorite, but is perhaps more primitive.

Nicolas Fray, Anaïs Bardyn, Hervé Cottin, Kathrin Altwegg, Donia Baklouti, Christelle Briois, Luigi Colangeli, Cécile Engrand, Henning Fischer, Albrecht Glasmachers + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19320

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Nodal-chain metals p.75

A hitherto unrecognized type of fermionic excitation in metals is described, which forms a chain of connected loops in momentum space (a nodal chain) along which conduction and valence bands touch.

Tomáš Bzdušek, QuanSheng Wu, Andreas Rüegg, Manfred Sigrist & Alexey A. Soluyanov

doi: 10.1038/nature19099

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Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches p.79

Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches is achieved in a poor solvent for the polymer by controlling the ratio between the sizes of polymer molecules and nanoparticles.

Rachelle M. Choueiri, Elizabeth Galati, Héloïse Thérien-Aubin, Anna Klinkova, Egor M. Larin, Ana Querejeta-Fernández, Lili Han, Huolin L. Xin, Oleg Gang, Ekaterina B. Zhulina + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19089

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Cobalt carbide nanoprisms for direct production of lower olefins from syngas p.84

Lower olefins are hydrocarbons that are widely used in the chemical industry, and can be generated from syngas by the ‘Fischer–Tropsch to olefins’ process; here, a new catalyst is described that can generate lower olefins from syngas with high selectivity, with little formation of undesirable methane.

Liangshu Zhong, Fei Yu, Yunlei An, Yonghui Zhao, Yuhan Sun, Zhengjia Li, Tiejun Lin, Yanjun Lin, Xingzhen Qi, Yuanyuan Dai + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19786

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Upward revision of global fossil fuel methane emissions based on isotope database p.88

Revisions in isotopic source signatures reveal that global total fossil fuel methane emissions from industry plus natural geological seepage are much larger than thought.

Stefan Schwietzke, Owen A. Sherwood, Lori M. P. Bruhwiler, John B. Miller, Giuseppe Etiope, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sylvia Englund Michel, Victoria A. Arling, Bruce H. Vaughn, James W. C. White + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19797

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A cross-modal genetic framework for the development and plasticity of sensory pathways p.96

In the neocortex, sensory information flows into areas specific for a particular modality through parallel thalamocortical circuits, consisting of first order and higher order nuclei connecting to primary and secondary cortical areas, respectively; here, the authors identify common developmental genetic programs that organize these conserved features in parallel sensory pathways.

Laura Frangeul, Gabrielle Pouchelon, Ludovic Telley, Sandrine Lefort, Christian Luscher & Denis Jabaudon

doi: 10.1038/nature19770

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Autocrine BDNF–TrkB signalling within a single dendritic spine p.99

Live fluorescent imaging of murine hippocampal slices shows that NMDAR-dependent glutamate signalling leads to postsynaptic BDNF release, with associated signalling of its receptor, TrkB, on the same dendritic spine, suggesting autocrine BDNF signalling.

Stephen C. Harward, Nathan G. Hedrick, Charles E. Hall, Paula Parra-Bueno, Teresa A. Milner, Enhui Pan, Tal Laviv, Barbara L. Hempstead, Ryohei Yasuda & James O. McNamara

doi: 10.1038/nature19766

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XPO1-dependent nuclear export is a druggable vulnerability in KRAS-mutant lung cancer p.114

A multi-genomic approach identifies the addiction of KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells to XPO1-dependent nuclear export, offering a new therapeutic opportunity.

Jimi Kim, Elizabeth McMillan, Hyun Seok Kim, Niranjan Venkateswaran, Gurbani Makkar, Jaime Rodriguez-Canales, Pamela Villalobos, Jasper Edgar Neggers, Saurabh Mendiratta, Shuguang Wei + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19771

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Accessory subunits are integral for assembly and function of human mitochondrial complex I p.123

Gene-editing technology and large-scale proteomics are used to provide insights into the modular assembly of the human mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, as well as identifying new assembly factors.

David A. Stroud, Elliot E. Surgenor, Luke E. Formosa, Boris Reljic, Ann E. Frazier, Marris G. Dibley, Laura D. Osellame, Tegan Stait, Traude H. Beilharz, David R. Thorburn + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19754

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