네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

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News Features

Can Cuban science go global? p.600

Tensions between Cuba and the United States are easing. But researchers still struggle to join the scientific world.

Sara Reardon

doi: 10.1038/537600a

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News & Views

Hybrid vigour characterized p.620

Crossing different plant varieties to improve yield and fertility is common practice. A dissection of the genomic architecture that underlies such hybrid vigour might help to inform future crop-improvement strategies. See Article p.629

James A. Birchler

doi: 10.1038/nature19433

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MRI illuminated by γ-rays p.621

A technique that combines magnetic resonance with nuclear medicine has been used to image the distribution of a radioactive tracer, potentially opening up a powerful and innovative approach to medical imaging. See Letter p.652

Richard Bowtell

doi: 10.1038/537621a

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The bacterial cell wall takes centre stage p.622

An unexpected function has been assigned to part of the molecular machinery that synthesizes the bacterial cell wall — a dramatic shift in our understanding that may have major implications for antibiotic development. See Article p.634

Kevin D. Young

doi: 10.1038/537622a

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A collaboration worth its weight in grain p.624

Interventions to improve crop yields in rural China through collaboration between researchers and farmers illustrate how the goal of increasing global food production can be approached locally. See Letter p.671

Leah H. Samberg

doi: 10.1038/nature19431

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Long-term effects of permafrost thaw p.625

Carbon emissions from the Arctic tundra could increase drastically as global warming thaws permafrost. Clues now obtained about the long-term effects of such thawing on carbon dioxide emissions highlight the need for more data.

Donatella Zona

doi: 10.1038/537625a

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Forecast for water balance p.626

Disturbances in internal water equilibrium can be debilitating for mammals. Two studies pinpoint areas of the mouse brain that respond to and anticipate thirst, preserving systematic fluid regulation. See Letters p.680 & p.685

Michael J. Krashes

doi: 10.1038/537626a

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Small molecular replicators go organic p.627

The emergence of complex, dynamic molecular behaviour might have had a role in the origin of life. Such behaviour has now been seen in a reaction network involving small, organic, self-replicating molecules of biological relevance. See Letter p.656

Annette F. Taylor

doi: 10.1038/537627a

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Articles

Genomic architecture of heterosis for yield traits in rice p.629

Insights into the genomic architecture of heterosis for grain yield in rice are presented, and further mapping of grain yield loci resolves candidate genes that could be useful for breeding.

Xuehui Huang, Shihua Yang, Junyi Gong, Qiang Zhao, Qi Feng, Qilin Zhan, Yan Zhao, Wenjun Li, Benyi Cheng, Junhui Xia + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19760

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The architecture of the mammalian respirasome p.639

Respirasomes are supercomplexes of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes that are responsible for cellular respiration and energy production; a cryo-electron microscopy structural study of the respirasome is presented.

Jinke Gu, Meng Wu, Runyu Guo, Kaige Yan, Jianlin Lei, Ning Gao & Maojun Yang

doi: 10.1038/nature19359

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The architecture of respiratory supercomplexes p.644

Respirasomes are supercomplexes of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes that are responsible for cellular respiration and energy production; cryo-electron microscopy structures of mammalian (sheep) respirasomes are presented.

James A. Letts, Karol Fiedorczuk & Leonid A. Sazanov

doi: 10.1038/nature19774

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Letters

The awakening of a classical nova from hibernation p.649

Long-term pre- and post-eruption observations of the classical nova V1213 Centauri reveal that its progenitor was a dwarf nova and that the mass-transfer rate increased considerably as a result of the nova explosion.

Przemek Mróz, Andrzej Udalski, Paweł Pietrukowicz, Michał K. Szymański, Igor Soszyński, Łukasz Wyrzykowski, Radosław Poleski, Szymon Kozłowski, Jan Skowron, Krzysztof Ulaczyk + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19066

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A method for imaging and spectroscopy using γ-rays and magnetic resonance p.652

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides fine spatial resolution, spectral sensitivity and a rich variety of contrast mechanisms for diagnostic medical applications. Nuclear imaging using γ-ray cameras offers the benefits of using small quantities of radioactive tracers that seek specific targets of interest within the body. Here we describe an imaging and spectroscopic modality that combines favourable aspects of both approaches. Spatial information is encoded into the spin orientations of tiny amounts of a polarized radioactive tracer using pulses of both radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation and magnetic-field gradients, as in MRI. However, rather than detecting weak radio-frequency signals, imaging information is obtained through the detection of γ-rays. A single γ-ray detector can be used to acquire an image; no γ-ray camera is needed. We demonstrate the feasibility of our technique by producing images and spectra from a glass cell containing only about 4 × 1013 atoms (about 1 millicurie) of the metastable isomer 131mXe that were polarized using the laser technique of spin-exchange optical pumping. If the cell had instead been filled with water and imaged using conventional MRI, then it would have contained more than 1024 water molecules. The high sensitivity of our modality expands the breadth of applications of magnetic resonance, and could lead to a new class of radioactive tracers.

Yuan Zheng, G. Wilson Miller, William A. Tobias & Gordon D. Cates

doi: 10.1038/nature19775

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Directed evolution of artificial metalloenzymes for in vivo metathesis p.661

An artificial metalloenzyme is compartmentalized and evolved in vivo for olefin metathesis—an archetypal organometallic reaction without equivalent in nature; the evolved metathase reveals broad substrate scope and compares favourably with commercial catalysts.

Markus Jeschek, Raphael Reuter, Tillmann Heinisch, Christian Trindler, Juliane Klehr, Sven Panke & Thomas R. Ward

doi: 10.1038/nature19114

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Key new pieces of the HIMU puzzle from olivines and diamond inclusions p.666

Trace-element analyses of olivine phenocrysts and diamond inclusions indicate that carbonatite-metasomatized subcontinental mantle may be the source of the HIMU mantle end-member, as opposed to recycled basaltic oceanic crust.

Yaakov Weiss, Cornelia Class, Steven L. Goldstein & Takeshi Hanyu

doi: 10.1038/nature19113

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Closing yield gaps in China by empowering smallholder farmers p.671

The authors report on attempts to increase the yield of smallholder farms in China using ten practices recommended by the Science and Technology Backyard for farming maize and wheat at county level.

Weifeng Zhang, Guoxin Cao, Xiaolin Li, Hongyan Zhang, Chong Wang, Quanqing Liu, Xinping Chen, Zhenling Cui, Jianbo Shen, Rongfeng Jiang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19368

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CHD8 haploinsufficiency results in autistic-like phenotypes in mice p.675

Heterozygous Chd8 mutant mice display autistic-like behaviours and small but global changes in brain gene expression, which are associated with delays in neuronal development.

Yuta Katayama, Masaaki Nishiyama, Hirotaka Shoji, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Atsuki Kawamura, Tetsuya Sato, Mikita Suyama, Toru Takumi, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa & Keiichi I. Nakayama

doi: 10.1038/nature19357

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Thirst neurons anticipate the homeostatic consequences of eating and drinking p.680

Feedback from the oral cavity to thirst-promoting neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) during eating and drinking is integrated with information about blood composition, providing a prediction of how oral consumption will affect fluid balance and leading to changes in behaviour.

Christopher A. Zimmerman, Yen-Chu Lin, David E. Leib, Ling Guo, Erica L. Huey, Gwendolyn E. Daly, Yiming Chen & Zachary A. Knight

doi: 10.1038/nature18950

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Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses p.689

The assembly and analysis of complete genomes and large genomic fragments have tripled the number of known ocean viruses and uncovered the potentially important roles they play in nitrogen and sulfur cycling.

Simon Roux, Jennifer R. Brum, Bas E. Dutilh, Shinichi Sunagawa, Melissa B. Duhaime, Alexander Loy, Bonnie T. Poulos, Natalie Solonenko, Elena Lara, Julie Poulain + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19366

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Rewriting yeast central carbon metabolism for industrial isoprenoid production p.694

Yeast central carbon metabolism has been engineered to achieve a more efficient isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway, an advance that brings commodity-scale production of such compounds a step closer.

Adam L. Meadows, Kristy M. Hawkins, Yoseph Tsegaye, Eugene Antipov, Youngnyun Kim, Lauren Raetz, Robert H. Dahl, Anna Tai, Tina Mahatdejkul-Meadows, Lan Xu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19769

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