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Science and inequality p.465

A special issue explores the study of inequality, and how socio-economic divides affect the science workforce.

doi: 10.1038/537465a

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News & Views

Structure of aggregates revealed p.492

A technical feat achieved by two independent groups has enabled resolution of the molecular structure of a form of the amyloid-β protein that is thought to play a major part in Alzheimer's disease.

Robert Tycko

doi: 10.1038/nature19470

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Motion controlled by sound p.493

A simple technique has been developed that produces holograms made of sound waves. These acoustic landscapes are used to manipulate microscale objects, and offer great potential in medical imaging and selective heating. See Letter p.518

Adrian Neild

doi: 10.1038/537493a

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Panoramic views of the early epigenome p.494

Four studies detail changes in how DNA is wrapped around histone proteins and in molecular modifications to histones that occur after fertilization. The results shed light on the early regulation of gene expression. See Letters p.548, p.553 & p.558

Juan M. Vaquerizas & Maria-Elena Torres-Padilla

doi: 10.1038/nature19468

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Migration of giants p.496

The origin of hot Jupiters, large gaseous planets in close orbits around stars, is unknown. Observations suggest that such planets are abundant in stellar clusters, and can result from encounters with other celestial bodies.

Amaury Triaud

doi: 10.1038/nature19430

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Channelling potassium to fight cancer p.497

Potassium released from dying tumour cells has now been found to suppress the activity of T cells of the immune system. Enhancing the removal of potassium from T cells restores their ability to attack cancer. See Letter p.539

K. George Chandy & Raymond S. Norton

doi: 10.1038/nature19467

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Multitasking materials from atomic templates p.499

Two 'failed' materials can perform much better when united. Such a combination exhibits magnetization and electric polarization up to room temperature, providing a basis for new magnetoelectric devices. See Letter p.523

Manfred Fiebig

doi: 10.1038/537499a

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Evidence of life in Earth's oldest rocks p.500

When did life first arise on Earth? Analysis of ancient rocks in Greenland that contain structures interpreted as bacterial in origin suggest that Earth might have been an abode for life much earlier than previously thought. See Letter p.535

Abigail C. Allwood

doi: 10.1038/nature19429

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Articles

Perimortem fractures in Lucy suggest mortality from fall out of tall tree p.503

Careful study of the famous fossil ‘Lucy’, a hominin who died over 3 million years ago, suggests that she died as a result of multiple injuries sustained in a fall–probably out of a tall tree.

John Kappelman, Richard A. Ketcham, Stephen Pearce, Lawrence Todd, Wiley Akins, Matthew W. Colbert, Mulugeta Feseha, Jessica A. Maisano & Adrienne Witzel

doi: 10.1038/nature19332

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High-throughput discovery of novel developmental phenotypes p.508

Identification and characterization, using a comprehensive embryonic phenotyping pipeline, of 410 lethal alleles during the generation of the first 1,751 of 5,000 unique gene knockouts produced by the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium.

Mary E. Dickinson, Ann M. Flenniken, Xiao Ji, Lydia Teboul, Michael D. Wong, Jacqueline K. White, Terrence F. Meehan, Wolfgang J. Weninger, Henrik Westerberg, Hibret Adissu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19356

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Letters

A partially differentiated interior for (1) Ceres deduced from its gravity field and shape p.515

Gravity and shape measurements for Ceres obtained from the Dawn spacecraft mission show that it is in hydrostatic equilibrium with its inferred normalized mean moment of inertia of 0.37, suggesting that Ceres has a rocky chondritic core overlaid by a volatile-rich icy shell.

R. S. Park, A. S. Konopliv, B. G. Bills, N. Rambaux, J. C. Castillo-Rogez, C. A. Raymond, A. T. Vaughan, A. I. Ermakov, M. T. Zuber, R. R. Fu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18955

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Holograms for acoustics p.518

Holograms for sound waves, encoded in a 3D printed plate, are used to shape sound fields that can be used for the contactless manipulation of objects.

Kai Melde, Andrew G. Mark, Tian Qiu & Peer Fischer

doi: 10.1038/nature19755

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Atomically engineered ferroic layers yield a room-temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic p.523

A single-phase multiferroic material is constructed, in which ferroelectricity and strong magnetic ordering are coupled near room temperature, enabling direct electric-field control of magnetism.

Julia A. Mundy, Charles M. Brooks, Megan E. Holtz, Jarrett A. Moyer, Hena Das, Alejandro F. Rébola, John T. Heron, James D. Clarkson, Steven M. Disseler, Zhiqi Liu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19343

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Switching on electrocatalytic activity in solid oxide cells p.528

A new way of activating the electrodes in solid oxide cells involves applying an electrical potential to trigger the exsolution of metal catalysts to the electrode surface; the success of this technique raises the possibility of regenerating the electrodes during operation.

Jae-ha Myung, Dragos Neagu, David N. Miller & John T. S. Irvine

doi: 10.1038/nature19090

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Molecular-scale evidence of aerosol particle formation via sequential addition of HIO3 p.532

Field data from an iodine-rich, coastal environment point to the molecular steps involved in the formation of new aerosol particles from iodine vapours over coastal regions.

Mikko Sipilä, Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Henning Henschel, Heikki Junninen, Jenni Kontkanen, Stefanie Richters, Juha Kangasluoma, Alessandro Franchin, Otso Peräkylä + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19314

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Ionic immune suppression within the tumour microenvironment limits T cell effector function p.539

Potassium ions released by necrotic cells in tumours impair T cell function by increasing the intracellular potassium concentration in vitro and in vivo.

Robert Eil, Suman K. Vodnala, David Clever, Christopher A. Klebanoff, Madhusudhanan Sukumar, Jenny H. Pan, Douglas C. Palmer, Alena Gros, Tori N. Yamamoto, Shashank J. Patel + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19364

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Fumarate is an epigenetic modifier that elicits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition p.544

Accumulation of fumarate resulting from mutations in fumarate hydratase,which are associated with renal and other cancers, is shown to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition—a process associated with cancer initiation.

Marco Sciacovelli, Emanuel Gonçalves, Timothy Isaac Johnson, Vincent Roberto Zecchini, Ana Sofia Henriques da Costa, Edoardo Gaude, Alizee Vercauteren Drubbel, Sebastian Julian Theobald, Sandra Riekje Abbo, Maxine Gia Binh Tran + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19353

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Broad histone H3K4me3 domains in mouse oocytes modulate maternal-to-zygotic transition p.548

Three papers in this issue of Nature use highly sensitive ChIP–seq assays to describe the dynamic patterns of histone modifications during early mouse embryogenesis, showing that oocytes have a distinctive epigenome and providing insights into how the maternal gene expression program transitions to the zygotic program.

John Arne Dahl, Inkyung Jung, Håvard Aanes, Gareth D. Greggains, Adeel Manaf, Mads Lerdrup, Guoqiang Li, Samantha Kuan, Bin Li, Ah Young Lee + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19360

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Allelic reprogramming of the histone modification H3K4me3 in early mammalian development p.553

Three papers in this issue of Nature use highly sensitive ChIP–seq assays to describe the dynamic patterns of histone modifications during early mouse embryogenesis, showing that oocytes have a distinctive epigenome and providing insights into how the maternal gene expression program transitions to the zygotic program.

Bingjie Zhang, Hui Zheng, Bo Huang, Wenzhi Li, Yunlong Xiang, Xu Peng, Jia Ming, Xiaotong Wu, Yu Zhang, Qianhua Xu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19361

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Distinct features of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 chromatin domains in pre-implantation embryos p.558

Three papers in this issue of Nature use highly sensitive ChIP–seq assays to describe the dynamic patterns of histone modifications during early mouse embryogenesis, showing that oocytes have a distinctive epigenome and providing insights into how the maternal gene expression program transitions to the zygotic program.

Xiaoyu Liu, Chenfei Wang, Wenqiang Liu, Jingyi Li, Chong Li, Xiaochen Kou, Jiayu Chen, Yanhong Zhao, Haibo Gao, Hong Wang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19362

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Structural basis of kainate subtype glutamate receptor desensitization p.567

The high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the kainate receptor GluK2 subtype in its desensitized state is reported, which reveals that desensitization is attained by establishing a ring-like structure in the ligand-binding domains.

Joel R. Meyerson, Sagar Chittori, Alan Merk, Prashant Rao, Tae Hee Han, Mihaela Serpe, Mark L. Mayer & Sriram Subramaniam

doi: 10.1038/nature19352

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