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Death-defying plaque cells p.32

Dead cells are usually removed through their ingestion and destruction by other cells. A study of plaque deposits in arteries shows that dying cells in plaques display a 'don't-eat-me' signal that blocks their removal. See Letter p.86

Ira Tabas

doi: 10.1038/nature18916

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Bacteria synchronized for drug delivery p.33

A synthetic genetic circuit that mimics the quorum-sensing systems used by bacterial populations to coordinate gene expression enables bacteria to deliver drugs to mouse tumours in repeated and synchronized cycles. See Letter p.81

Shibin Zhou

doi: 10.1038/nature18915

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A milestone in quantum computing p.35

Quantum computers require many quantum bits to perform complex calculations, but devices with more than a few bits are difficult to program. A device based on five atomic quantum bits shows a way forward. See Letter p.63

Stephen D. Bartlett

doi: 10.1038/536035a

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Protection for anaesthetized mice p.36

A cognition-enhancing drug called CX546 prevents the neurodegenerative effects of repeated anaesthesia in infant mice by promoting neuronal changes associated with learning and by protecting neurons from death.

Laura Cornelissen & Charles Berde

doi: 10.1038/536036a

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Still a geneticist's nightmare p.37

The largest DNA-sequencing study of type 2 diabetes conducted so far concludes that, contrary to expectation, low-frequency and rare genetic variants do not contribute significantly to disease risk. See Article p.41

Stephen S. Rich

doi: 10.1038/nature18906

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Destruction of discrete charge p.38

Electric charge is quantized in units of the electron's charge. An experiment explores the suppression of charge quantization caused by quantum fluctuations and supports a long-standing theory that explains this behaviour. See Letter p.58

Yuli V. Nazarov

doi: 10.1038/536038a

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Articles

The genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes p.41

Sequencing data from two large-scale studies show that most of the genetic variation influencing the risk of type 2 diabetes involves common alleles and is found in regions previously identified by genome-wide association studies, clarifying the genetic architecture of this disease.

Christian Fuchsberger, Jason Flannick, Tanya M. Teslovich, Anubha Mahajan, Vineeta Agarwala, Kyle J. Gaulton, Clement Ma, Pierre Fontanillas, Loukas Moutsianas, Davis J. McCarthy + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18642

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Letters

Bright carbonate deposits as evidence of aqueous alteration on (1) Ceres p.54

High-resolution near-infrared observations of the Occator bright areas on the dwarf planet Ceres suggest that the bright material is mostly made up of endogenous sodium carbonate.

M. C. De Sanctis, A. Raponi, E. Ammannito, M. Ciarniello, M. J. Toplis, H. Y. McSween, J. C. Castillo-Rogez, B. L. Ehlmann, F. G. Carrozzo, S. Marchi + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18290

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Controlling charge quantization with quantum fluctuations p.58

A device consisting of a metallic island connected to electrodes via tunable semiconductor-based conduction channels is used to explore the evolution of charge quantization in the presence of quantum fluctuations; the measurements reveal a robust scaling of charge quantization as the square root of the residual electron reflection probability across a quantum channel, consistent with theoretical predictions.

S. Jezouin, Z. Iftikhar, A. Anthore, F. D. Parmentier, U. Gennser, A. Cavanna, A. Ouerghi, I. P. Levkivskyi, E. Idrisov, E. V. Sukhorukov + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature19072

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Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils p.67

Moving mechanical interfaces need to be lubricated to ensure long life and easy slippage; here, a new type of coating is described—comprising nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, together with a copper or nickel catalyst—that generates protective tribofilms from lubricating oils.

Ali Erdemir, Giovanni Ramirez, Osman L. Eryilmaz, Badri Narayanan, Yifeng Liao, Ganesh Kamath & Subramanian K. R. S. Sankaranarayanan

doi: 10.1038/nature18948

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Evidence for climate change in the satellite cloud record p.72

Satellite records show that the global pattern of cloud changes between the 1980s and the 2000s are similar to the patterns predicted by models of climate with recent external radiative forcing, and that the primary drivers of the cloud changes appear to be increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and a recovery from volcanic radiative cooling.

Joel R. Norris, Robert J. Allen, Amato T. Evan, Mark D. Zelinka, Christopher W. O’Dell & Stephen A. Klein

doi: 10.1038/nature18273

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A novel excitatory network for the control of breathing p.76

A novel rhythmogenic brainstem network was discovered in mice that is necessary and sufficient for generating postinspiration, a breathing phase also used for swallowing, coughing and vocalization.

Tatiana M. Anderson, Alfredo J. Garcia, Nathan A. Baertsch, Julia Pollak, Jacob C. Bloom, Aguan D. Wei, Karan G. Rai & Jan-Marino Ramirez

doi: 10.1038/nature18944

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Synchronized cycles of bacterial lysis for in vivo delivery p.81

Clinically relevant bacteria have been engineered to lyse synchronously at a threshold population density and release genetically encoded therapeutics; treatment of mice with these bacteria slowed the growth of tumours.

M. Omar Din, Tal Danino, Arthur Prindle, Matt Skalak, Jangir Selimkhanov, Kaitlin Allen, Ellixis Julio, Eta Atolia, Lev S. Tsimring, Sangeeta N. Bhatia + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18930

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CD47-blocking antibodies restore phagocytosis and prevent atherosclerosis p.86

Atherosclerotic lesions in mice and humans switch on a ‘don’t eat me’ signal—expression of CD47—that prevents effective removal of diseased tissue; anti-CD47 antibody therapy can normalize this defective efferocytosis, with beneficial results in several mouse models of atherosclerosis.

Yoko Kojima, Jens-Peter Volkmer, Kelly McKenna, Mete Civelek, Aldons Jake Lusis, Clint L. Miller, Daniel Direnzo, Vivek Nanda, Jianqin Ye, Andrew J. Connolly + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18935

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Neoantigen landscape dynamics during human melanoma–T cell interactions p.91

Analyses of tumour samples and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes from two patients with melanoma who were treated with adoptive T-cell therapy provide evidence for tumour escape by loss and downregulation of immunogenic antigens.

Els M. E. Verdegaal, Noel F. C. C. de Miranda, Marten Visser, Tom Harryvan, Marit M. van Buuren, Rikke S. Andersen, Sine R. Hadrup, Caroline E. van der Minne, Remko Schotte, Hergen Spits + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18945

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The structural basis of modified nucleosome recognition by 53BP1 p.100

A cryo-electron microscopy structure of the DNA damage repair protein 53BP1 bound to a nucleosome illuminates the way 53BP1 recognizes two types of histone modifications (a methyl group and a ubiquitin moiety), and provides insight into the highly specified recognition and recruitment of 53BP1 to modified chromatin.

Marcus D. Wilson, Samir Benlekbir, Amélie Fradet-Turcotte, Alana Sherker, Jean-Philippe Julien, Andrea McEwan, Sylvie M. Noordermeer, Frank Sicheri, John L. Rubinstein & Daniel Durocher

doi: 10.1038/nature18951

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