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Amazon music p.496

The people of a tribe called the Tsimane, who have been isolated from Western music, perceive music differently from Western listeners, raising questions about whether musical preference is innate or cultural. See Letter p. 547

Robert Zatorre

doi: 10.1038/nature18913

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Unexpected fix for ocean models p.497

Computational models persistently underestimate strong currents that redistribute ocean heat. This problem is solved in models in which ocean eddies are damped by coupling of the atmosphere with the sea. See Letter p.533

Kathryn A. Kelly & LuAnne Thompson

doi: 10.1038/535497a

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Mitochondrial DNA in evolution and disease p.498

Cellular organelles called mitochondria contain their own DNA. The discovery that variation in mitochondrial DNA alters physiology and lifespan in mice has implications for evolutionary biology and the origins of disease. See Letter p.561

Douglas C. Wallace

doi: 10.1038/nature18902

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Dynamo theory questioned p.500

Observations of X-ray emission — a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields — from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526

Paul Charbonneau

doi: 10.1038/535500a

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Antibiotics right under our nose p.501

Bacteria that are normally resident in the body have many roles in supporting health. Researchers have now identified a bacterial resident of the nose that produces an antibiotic that is active against a pathogen. See Article p.511

Kim Lewis & Philip Strandwitz

doi: 10.1038/535501a

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Thirty-five years of endless cell potential p.502

Pluripotent cells have the potential to differentiate into any cell type in the body. Their isolation and propagation from mouse embryos was pivotal for advances in understanding human development and disease.

M. Azim Surani

doi: 10.1038/535502a

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Articles

Human commensals producing a novel antibiotic impair pathogen colonization p.511

The nasal commensal bacterium Staphylococcus lugdunensis produces a novel cyclic peptide antibiotic, lugdunin, that inhibits colonization by S. aureus in animal models and is associated with a significantly reduced S. aureus carriage rate in humans, suggesting that human commensal bacteria could be a valuable resource for the discovery of new antibiotics.

Alexander Zipperer, Martin C. Konnerth, Claudia Laux, Anne Berscheid, Daniela Janek, Christopher Weidenmaier, Marc Burian, Nadine A. Schilling, Christoph Slavetinsky, Matthias Marschal + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18634

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Structural basis of Smoothened regulation by its extracellular domains p.517

Structural studies show that the activity of the G-protein-coupled receptor Smoothened is modulated by ligand-regulated interactions between its extracellular and transmembrane domains.

Eamon F. X. Byrne, Ria Sircar, Paul S. Miller, George Hedger, Giovanni Luchetti, Sigrid Nachtergaele, Mark D. Tully, Laurel Mydock-McGrane, Douglas F. Covey, Robert P. Rambo + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18934

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Letters

Solar-type dynamo behaviour in fully convective stars without a tachocline p.526

The relationship between the X-ray activity and rotation of a star is a well-established proxy for the behaviour of the stellar dynamo; observations of four fully convective stars for which this relationship is similar to that of solar-type stars imply that the same dynamo mechanism is at work despite their structural differences to the Sun.

Nicholas J. Wright & Jeremy J. Drake

doi: 10.1038/nature18638

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Combinatorial design of textured mechanical metamaterials p.529

Lattices of cubic building blocks that deform anisotropically and that are designed to fit together like a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle are 3D printed to create aperiodic, frustration-free, mechanical metamaterials; these metamaterials act as programmable shape-shifters and are able to perform pattern analysis.

Corentin Coulais, Eial Teomy, Koen de Reus, Yair Shokef & Martin van Hecke

doi: 10.1038/nature18960

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Western boundary currents regulated by interaction between ocean eddies and the atmosphere p.533

In coupled climate model simulations the strength of major oceanic fronts associated with western boundary currents—tremendous conveyors of ocean heat towards the poles—is systematically underestimated, but this can be addressed by resolving not only ocean mesoscale eddies but, more importantly, their feedback with the atmosphere.

Xiaohui Ma, Zhao Jing, Ping Chang, Xue Liu, Raffaele Montuoro, R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Richard J. Greatbatch, Peter Brandt, Dexing Wu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18640

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High-resolution seismic constraints on flow dynamics in the oceanic asthenosphere p.538

Rayleigh waves recorded with an ocean-bottom seismograph array in the central Pacific Ocean constrain the seismic anisotropy within the oceanic lithosphere–asthenosphere system: seafloor-spreading-induced lithospheric fabric generates the strongest anisotropy, while density- and/or pressure-driven flow produces a secondary peak in anisotropy at the base of the asthenosphere.

Pei-Ying Patty Lin, James B. Gaherty, Ge Jin, John A. Collins, Daniel Lizarralde, Rob. L. Evans & Greg Hirth

doi: 10.1038/nature18012

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A somitic contribution to the apical ectodermal ridge is essential for fin formation p.542

Invasion of a somite-derived cell population into the apical ectodermal ridge in zebrafish regulates apical fold induction during fin formation; ablation of these cells inhibits formation of the apical fold and increases the size of the underlying fin bud mesenchyme, suggesting that somite-derived cells play a key part in the evolutionary transition from fins to limbs.

Wouter Masselink, Nicholas J. Cole, Fruzsina Fenyes, Silke Berger, Carmen Sonntag, Alasdair Wood, Phong D. Nguyen, Naomi Cohen, Franziska Knopf, Gilbert Weidinger + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18953

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Indifference to dissonance in native Amazonians reveals cultural variation in music perception p.547

A native Amazonian society rated consonant and dissonant chords and vocal harmonies as equally pleasant, whereas Bolivian city- and town-dwellers preferred consonance, indicating that preference for consonance over dissonance is not universal and probably develops from exposure to particular types of polyphonic music.

Josh H. McDermott, Alan F. Schultz, Eduardo A. Undurraga & Ricardo A. Godoy

doi: 10.1038/nature18635

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Transfer of mitochondria from astrocytes to neurons after stroke p.551

In a mouse model of ischaemia, mitochondrial particles released from astroctyes are taken up by adjacent neurons, leading to enhanced cell survival signalling; disruption of this release mechanism resulted in worsened neurological outcomes.

Kazuhide Hayakawa, Elga Esposito, Xiaohua Wang, Yasukazu Terasaki, Yi Liu, Changhong Xing, Xunming Ji & Eng H. Lo

doi: 10.1038/nature18928

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HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption p.556

A phase IIa clinical trial shows that the administration of the broadly neutralizing antibody 3BNC117 delays viral rebound following the discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy in patients who were chronically infected with HIV-1.

Johannes F. Scheid, Joshua A. Horwitz, Yotam Bar-On, Edward F. Kreider, Ching-Lan Lu, Julio C. C. Lorenzi, Anna Feldmann, Malte Braunschweig, Lilian Nogueira, Thiago Oliveira + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18929

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Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA matching shapes metabolism and healthy ageing p.561

Conplastic mice that share the same nuclear genome but have different mitochondrial DNA were analysed throughout their life — the mitochondrial genome affects many aspects of physiology and results in differences in median lifespan; the authors propose that the interplay of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes may be an important factor influencing this phenomenon.

Ana Latorre-Pellicer, Raquel Moreno-Loshuertos, Ana Victoria Lechuga-Vieco, Fátima Sánchez-Cabo, Carlos Torroja, Rebeca Acín-Pérez, Enrique Calvo, Esther Aix, Andrés González-Guerra, Angela Logan + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18618

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Sliding sleeves of XRCC4–XLF bridge DNA and connect fragments of broken DNA p.566

A combination of single-molecule techniques shows that the repair proteins XRCC4 and XLF form heteromeric mobile sleeve-like complexes that can bridge and hold together fragments of broken DNA.

Ineke Brouwer, Gerrit Sitters, Andrea Candelli, Stephanie J. Heerema, Iddo Heller, Abinadabe J. Melo de, Hongshan Zhang, Davide Normanno, Mauro Modesti, Erwin J. G. Peterman + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18643

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Dynamics of ribosome scanning and recycling revealed by translation complex profiling p.570

A translation complex sequencing approach has been developed enabling intermediates of all mRNA-associated processes of translation to be isolated and localized across the transcriptome; the results support longstanding models of initiation and termination and offer new mechanistic insights.

Stuart K. Archer, Nikolay E. Shirokikh, Traude H. Beilharz & Thomas Preiss

doi: 10.1038/nature18647

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Structural organization of the inactive X chromosome in the mouse p.575

An in-depth analysis of the structure, chromatin accessibility and expression status of the mouse inactive X (Xi) chromosome provides insights into the regulation of Xi chromosome structure, its dependence on the macrosatellite DXZ4 region, the Xist non-coding RNA, as well as the basis for topologically associating domain (TAD) formation on the Xi.

Luca Giorgetti, Bryan R. Lajoie, Ava C. Carter, Mikael Attia, Ye Zhan, Jin Xu, Chong Jian Chen, Noam Kaplan, Howard Y. Chang, Edith Heard + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18589

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