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South Africa ushers in a new era for HIV p.214

The country has developed the biggest programme of antiretroviral therapy in the world. Now scientists are exploring the long-term consequences of the drugs.

Linda Nordling

doi: 10.1038/535214a

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News & Views

A sticky problem for chromosomes p.234

The role of Ki-67 in mitotic cell division has been a mystery. Extensive imaging reveals that this highly positively charged protein coats chromosomes to prevent them from coalescing. See Letter p.308

Clifford P. Brangwynne & John F. Marko

doi: 10.1038/nature18904

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Magnetic nanoparticles line up p.235

Certain bacteria contain strings of magnetic nanoparticles and therefore align with magnetic fields. Inspired by these natural structures, researchers have now fabricated synthetic one-dimensional arrays of such particles.

Damien Faivre & Mathieu Bennet

doi: 10.1038/535235a

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Interactions of climate change and species p.236

At what times of year are phenological events across species sensitive to climatic variables, and how sensitive are they? Answers to these questions emerge from the analysis of a wealth of long-term data sets. See Article p.241

Marcel E. Visser

doi: 10.1038/nature18905

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Variable snow lines affect planet formation p.237

Observations of the disk of dust and gas around a nascent star reveal that the distance from the star at which water in the disk forms ice is variable. This variation might hinder the formation of planets. See Letter p.258

Brenda Matthews

doi: 10.1038/535237a

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Schrödinger's cat beats a quantum limit p.238

Quantum effects have been used in devices that measure various quantities, but not to measure electric fields. The sensitivity of an electrometer has now been boosted using the phenomenon of quantum superposition. See Letter p.262

Charles S. Adams

doi: 10.1038/535238a

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Articles

Phenological sensitivity to climate across taxa and trophic levels p.241

An ambitious study has used more than 10,000 datasets to examine how the phenological characteristics—such as the timing of reproduction—of various taxa alter in response to climate change, and suggests that differing levels of climate sensitivity could lead to the desynchronization of seasonal events over time.

Stephen J. Thackeray, Peter A. Henrys, Deborah Hemming, James R. Bell, Marc S. Botham, Sarah Burthe, Pierre Helaouet, David G. Johns, Ian D. Jones, David I. Leech + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18608

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Multiple mechanisms disrupt the let-7 microRNA family in neuroblastoma p.246

Disparate modes of suppression of the let-7 microRNA family are selectively and inversely related in neuroblastoma.

John T. Powers, Kaloyan M. Tsanov, Daniel S. Pearson, Frederik Roels, Catherine S. Spina, Richard Ebright, Marc Seligson, Yvanka de Soysa, Patrick Cahan, Jessica Theißen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18632

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A novel cereblon modulator recruits GSPT1 to the CRL4CRBN ubiquitin ligase p.252

This paper reports the identification of a new cereblon-modulating agent, CC-885, which targets the translation termination factor GSPT1 and demonstrates anti-tumour activity in patient-derived tumour cells; the crystal structure of the cereblon–DDB1–GSPT1–CC-885 complex reveals a common motif for cereblon-substrate recruitment.

Mary E. Matyskiela, Gang Lu, Takumi Ito, Barbra Pagarigan, Chin-Chun Lu, Karen Miller, Wei Fang, Nai-Yu Wang, Derek Nguyen, Jack Houston + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18611

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Letters

Imaging the water snow-line during a protostellar outburst p.258

The snow-line is the distance from a protostar at which a particular volatile gas condenses; images of the protostar V883 Ori suggest that the water snow-line migrated outwards during a protostellar outburst, with implications for our understanding of the formation of planetary systems such as our own.

Lucas A. Cieza, Simon Casassus, John Tobin, Steven P. Bos, Jonathan P. Williams, Sebastian Perez, Zhaohuan Zhu, Claudio Caceres, Hector Canovas, Michael M. Dunham + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18612

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A sensitive electrometer based on a Rydberg atom in a Schrödinger-cat state p.262

A highly sensitive electrometer is reported that is based on a Schrödinger-cat state in a Rydberg atom, that reaches a sensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit and can compete with state-of-the-art electric field measurements performed using electromechanical resonators and single-electron transistors.

Adrien Facon, Eva-Katharina Dietsche, Dorian Grosso, Serge Haroche, Jean-Michel Raimond, Michel Brune & Sébastien Gleyzes

doi: 10.1038/nature18327

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Transport evidence for Fermi-arc-mediated chirality transfer in the Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 p.266

Electronic transport measurements in a magnetic field on the topological Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 identify the predicted Weyl orbits that weave Fermi arcs and bulk states together; the Weyl orbits enable transfer of chirality from one node to another, and open up the possibility of controlling topological properties electronically.

Philip J. W. Moll, Nityan L. Nair, Toni Helm, Andrew C. Potter, Itamar Kimchi, Ashvin Vishwanath & James G. Analytis

doi: 10.1038/nature18276

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Mid-ocean-ridge seismicity reveals extreme types of ocean lithosphere p.276

The structure and accretion modes of two end-member types of oceanic lithosphere are described using a detailed seismicity survey along 390 kilometres of an ultraslow ridge axis, indicating deeper seismicity in amagmatic regions and explaining the uneven crustal production at ultraslow-spreading ridges.

Vera Schlindwein & Florian Schmid

doi: 10.1038/nature18277

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Molecular logic behind the three-way stochastic choices that expand butterfly colour vision p.280

Butterflies diversify their retinal mosaics by producing three stochastic types of ommatidia instead of the two types found in Drosophila; this study shows that butterfly retinas use two R7-like photoreceptors per ommatidium that each make an independent stochastic decision to express the transcription factor Spineless, which controls photoreceptor and ommatidial fate.

Michael Perry, Michiyo Kinoshita, Giuseppe Saldi, Lucy Huo, Kentaro Arikawa & Claude Desplan

doi: 10.1038/nature18616

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Dissociated functional significance of decision-related activity in the primate dorsal stream p.285

Activity in regions of the brain have been correlated with decision making but determining whether such relationships are correlative or causative has been challenging; using a technique to reversibly inactivate brain areas in monkeys reveals that although there is decision-related activity in the lateral intraparietal (LIP) area, LIP is not critical for the perceptual decisions studied here.

Leor N. Katz, Jacob L. Yates, Jonathan W. Pillow & Alexander C. Huk

doi: 10.1038/nature18617

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Resolving early mesoderm diversification through single-cell expression profiling p.289

Analysis of the transcriptome of more than 1,200 cells from gastrulating mouse embryos using single-cell sequencing, gathering unexpected insights into early mesoderm formation during gastrulation.

Antonio Scialdone, Yosuke Tanaka, Wajid Jawaid, Victoria Moignard, Nicola K. Wilson, Iain C. Macaulay, John C. Marioni & Berthold Göttgens

doi: 10.1038/nature18633

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Cloche is a bHLH-PAS transcription factor that drives haemato-vascular specification p.294

The zebrafish cloche gene is required for the formation of most endothelial and haematopoietic cells, however, it has been difficult to isolate; this study reveals that cloche encodes a PAS-domain-containing bHLH transcription factor, and a mammalian orthologue can partially rescue cloche mutants, indicating a possible conserved role in mammals.

Sven Reischauer, Oliver A. Stone, Alethia Villasenor, Neil Chi, Suk-Won Jin, Marcel Martin, Miler T. Lee, Nana Fukuda, Michele Marass, Alec Witty + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18614

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Early myeloid lineage choice is not initiated by random PU.1 to GATA1 protein ratios p.299

Live imaging and single-cell analyses are used to show that decision-making by differentiating haematopoietic stem cells between the megakaryocytic–erythroid and granulocytic–monocytic lineages is not initiated by stochastic switching between the lineage-specific transcription factors PU.1 and GATA1, which challenges the previous model of early myeloid lineage choice.

Philipp S. Hoppe, Michael Schwarzfischer, Dirk Loeffler, Konstantinos D. Kokkaliaris, Oliver Hilsenbeck, Nadine Moritz, Max Endele, Adam Filipczyk, Adriana Gambardella, Nouraiz Ahmed + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18320

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TTC39B deficiency stabilizes LXR reducing both atherosclerosis and steatohepatitis p.303

In mice, deficiency in the high-density lipoprotein gene T39 stabilizes liver X receptor (LXR), reducing both atherosclerosis and steatohepatitis, suggesting that T39 inhibition could be an effective strategy for reducing these diseases.

Joanne Hsieh, Masahiro Koseki, Matthew M. Molusky, Emi Yakushiji, Ikuyo Ichi, Marit Westerterp, Jahangir Iqbal, Robin B. Chan, Sandra Abramowicz, Liana Tascau + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18628

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Ki-67 acts as a biological surfactant to disperse mitotic chromosomes p.308

During cell division, chromosomes are maintained as individual units; this process is shown to be mediated by the cell proliferation marker Ki-67, which has biophysical properties similar to those of surfactants.

Sara Cuylen, Claudia Blaukopf, Antonio Z. Politi, Thomas Müller-Reichert, Beate Neumann, Ina Poser, Jan Ellenberg, Anthony A. Hyman & Daniel W. Gerlich

doi: 10.1038/nature18610

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