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Back to the thesis p.22

Late nights, typos, self-doubt and despair. Three leading scientists dust off their theses, and reflect on what the PhD was like for them.

Kerri Smith & Noah Baker

doi: 10.1038/535022a

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News & Views

Rare data from a lost satellite p.40

The Hitomi astronomical satellite observed gas motions in the Perseus galaxy cluster shortly before losing contact with Earth. Its findings are invaluable to studies of cluster physics and cosmology. See Letter p.117

Elizabeth Blanton

doi: 10.1038/535040a

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In search of the memory molecule p.41

The protein PKM-ζ has been proposed to regulate the maintenance of memory in rodents, but this theory has been questioned. The finding that another isoform of the protein acts as a backup if PKM-ζ is lacking will influence this debate.

Paul W. Frankland & Sheena A. Josselyn

doi: 10.1038/nature18903

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Quantum control of light-induced reactions p.42

An investigation of how ultracold molecules are broken apart by light reveals surprising, previously unobserved quantum effects. The work opens up avenues of research in quantum optics. See Letter p.122

David W. Chandler

doi: 10.1038/535042a

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The rainforest's 'do not disturb' signs p.44

A study reveals that human-driven disturbances in previously undisturbed Amazon rainforest can cause biodiversity losses as severe as those of deforestation. Urgent policy interventions are needed to preserve forest quality. See Letter p.144

David P. Edwards

doi: 10.1038/nature18901

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Species-specific motion detectors p.45

A range of neuronal mechanisms can enable animals to detect the direction of visual motion. Computational models now indicate that a factor as simple as eye size might explain some of this diversity. See Article p.105

Thomas Euler & Tom Baden

doi: 10.1038/nature18454

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Articles

Species-specific wiring for direction selectivity in the mammalian retina p.105

Directional selectivity in the detection of moving visual stimuli critically depends on starburst amacrine cells, which have been studied primarily in rabbit retina; a large-scale reconstruction of the mouse retina at a single-synapse level, along with experimental and theoretical analysis, shows that mouse retinal circuitry is adapted to the smaller eye size of mice.

Huayu Ding, Robert G. Smith, Alon Poleg-Polsky, Jeffrey S. Diamond & Kevin L. Briggman

doi: 10.1038/nature18609

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Letters

The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster p.117

X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of about 164 kilometres per second in the region 30–60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus; turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, necessitating only a small correction to the total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium.

doi: 10.1038/nature18627

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Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities p.127

Placing a light emitter in an ultra-small optical cavity results in coupling between matter and light, generating new forms of emission that can be exploited in practical or fundamental applications; here, a system is described in which strong light–matter coupling occurs at room temperature and in ambient conditions by aligning single dye molecules in the optical cavities between gold nanoparticles and surfaces.

Rohit Chikkaraddy, Bart de Nijs, Felix Benz, Steven J. Barrow, Oren A. Scherman, Edina Rosta, Angela Demetriadou, Peter Fox, Ortwin Hess & Jeremy J. Baumberg

doi: 10.1038/nature17974

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Lanthanum-catalysed synthesis of microporous 3D graphene-like carbons in a zeolite template p.131

A long-sought three-dimensional graphene-like carbon structure that resembles periodically networked carbon nanotubes is now readily available through lanthanum-catalysed carbon synthesis using a zeolite template.

Kyoungsoo Kim, Taekyoung Lee, Yonghyun Kwon, Yongbeom Seo, Jongchan Song, Jung Ki Park, Hyunsoo Lee, Jeong Young Park, Hyotcherl Ihee, Sung June Cho + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18284

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Design of a hyperstable 60-subunit protein icosahedron p.136

The computational design of an extremely stable icosahedral self-assembling protein nanocage is presented; the icosahedron should be useful for applications ranging from calibrating fluorescence microscopy to drug delivery.

Yang Hsia, Jacob B. Bale, Shane Gonen, Dan Shi, William Sheffler, Kimberly K. Fong, Una Nattermann, Chunfu Xu, Po-Ssu Huang, Rashmi Ravichandran + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18010

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Subduction controls the distribution and fragmentation of Earth’s tectonic plates p.140

Computer models of mantle convection with plate-like behaviour are used to demonstrate that the size–frequency distribution of tectonic plates on Earth is controlled by subduction geometry—the spacing between subducting slabs controls the layout of large plates, and the stresses caused by the bending of trenches break plates into smaller fragments.

Claire Mallard, Nicolas Coltice, Maria Seton, R. Dietmar Müller & Paul J. Tackley

doi: 10.1038/nature17992

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Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double biodiversity loss from deforestation p.144

Evaluation of the primary forests in the Brazilian state of Pará shows that anthropogenic disturbance can more than double the loss of biodiversity expected from deforestation.

Jos Barlow, Gareth D. Lennox, Joice Ferreira, Erika Berenguer, Alexander C. Lees, Ralph Mac Nally, James R. Thomson, Silvio Frosini de Barros Ferraz, Julio Louzada, Victor Hugo Fonseca Oliveira + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18326

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Allosteric inhibition of SHP2 phosphatase inhibits cancers driven by receptor tyrosine kinases p.148

SHP099, a selective inhibitor of signalling meditator SHP2 with drug-like properties, has an allosteric mechanism of action whereby it stabilizes SHP2 in an auto-inhibited conformation, and suppresses RAS–ERK signalling and proliferation in receptor-tyrosine-kinase-driven cancer cell lines and mouse tumour xenograft models.

Ying-Nan P. Chen, Matthew J. LaMarche, Ho Man Chan, Peter Fekkes, Jorge Garcia-Fortanet, Michael G. Acker, Brandon Antonakos, Christine Hiu-Tung Chen, Zhouliang Chen, Vesselina G. Cooke + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18621

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Genetic dissection of Flaviviridae host factors through genome-scale CRISPR screens p.159

A CRISPR screening approach shows that endoplasmic-reticulum (ER)-associated protein complexes, including the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) protein complex, are important for infection by dengue virus and other related mosquito-borne flaviviruses, whereas hepatitis C virus is dependent on distinct entry factors, RNA binding proteins and FAD biosynthesis.

Caleb D. Marceau, Andreas S. Puschnik, Karim Majzoub, Yaw Shin Ooi, Susan M. Brewer, Gabriele Fuchs, Kavya Swaminathan, Miguel A. Mata, Joshua E. Elias, Peter Sarnow + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18631

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A CRISPR screen defines a signal peptide processing pathway required by flaviviruses p.164

The endoplasmic-reticulum-associated signal peptidase complex is required for infection by numerous flaviviruses, including West Nile, Dengue and Zika viruses, but is not required for infection by other types of virus or for host protein synthesis.

Rong Zhang, Jonathan J. Miner, Matthew J. Gorman, Keiko Rausch, Holly Ramage, James P. White, Adam Zuiani, Ping Zhang, Estefania Fernandez, Qiang Zhang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18625

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Toremifene interacts with and destabilizes the Ebola virus glycoprotein p.169

High-resolution structures of the unliganded Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) and of GP bound to the drugs toremifene and ibuprofen are presented, providing insights into how the drugs inhibit viral fusion with the endosomal membrane.

Yuguang Zhao, Jingshan Ren, Karl Harlos, Daniel M. Jones, Antra Zeltina, Thomas A. Bowden, Sergi Padilla-Parra, Elizabeth E. Fry & David I. Stuart

doi: 10.1038/nature18615

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A core viral protein binds host nucleosomes to sequester immune danger signals p.173

Here, a small core protein of human adenoviruses is shown to associate with histones, sequestering proteins on host chromatin and preventing inflammatory proteins from being released and triggering inflammation.

Daphne C. Avgousti, Christin Herrmann, Katarzyna Kulej, Neha J. Pancholi, Nikolina Sekulic, Joana Petrescu, Rosalynn C. Molden, Daniel Blumenthal, Andrew J. Paris, Emigdio D. Reyes + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18317

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The nature of mutations induced by replication–transcription collisions p.178

When transcription and replication machineries collide on DNA, they can cause mutations to occur in the area near the collision; these mutations are now shown to include two types—duplications/deletions within the transcription unit and base substitutions in the cis-regulatory element of gene expression.

T. Sabari Sankar, Brigitta D. Wastuwidyaningtyas, Yuexin Dong, Sarah A. Lewis & Jue D. Wang

doi: 10.1038/nature18316

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Allosteric coupling from G protein to the agonist-binding pocket in GPCRs p.182

Here, pharmacological and biochemical evidence is provided that shows that G-protein coupling to the β2-adrenergic receptor stabilizes a ‘closed’ conformation of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and that that the effects of the G protein on the ligand-binding site of the GPCR are observed even in the absence of a bound agonist.

Brian T. DeVree, Jacob P. Mahoney, Gisselle A. Vélez-Ruiz, Soren G. F. Rasmussen, Adam J. Kuszak, Elin Edwald, Juan-Jose Fung, Aashish Manglik, Matthieu Masureel, Yang Du + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18324

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