네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Humanity’s forgotten family p.151

Hominin fossils discovered near the site of the 'hobbit' Homo floresiensis provide yet more evidence that the human lineage is more diverse than was ever imagined.

doi: 10.1038/534151a

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Second chances p.152

The line between compliance and misconduct is finer than you might think.

doi: 10.1038/534152b

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Energy hit p.152

Germany’s decision to slow the expansion of green-energy production is a reasonable move.

doi: 10.1038/534152a

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News

News Features

News & Views

Rules of the game for microbiota p.182

Are the dynamics of our microbial communities unique to us or does everyone's microbiota follow the same rules? The emerging insights into this question could be of relevance to health and disease. See Letter p.259

Karoline Faust & Jeroen Raes

doi: 10.1038/534182a

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Hydrogen and oxygen in the deep Earth p.183

The finding that an unusual iron oxide forms at extremely high pressures suggests that hydrogen and oxygen — two elements that strongly influence Earth's evolution — are generated in the mantle. See Letter p.241

Takehiko Yagi

doi: 10.1038/534183a

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To mimicry and back again p.184

Deadly coral snakes warn predators through striking red-black banding. New data confirm that many harmless snakes have evolved to resemble coral snakes, and suggest that the evolution of this Batesian mimicry is not always a one-way street.

David W. Pfennig

doi: 10.1038/nature18441

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Microbial signals to the brain control weight p.185

The bacteria that inhabit the rodent gut promote insulin secretion and food intake by activating the parasympathetic nervous system — a hitherto unknown mode of action for this multifaceted microbiota. See Article p.213

Mirko Trajkovski & Claes B. Wollheim

doi: 10.1038/534185a

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No turning back for motorized molecules p.187

Two molecular motors have been developed that use chemical energy to drive rotational motion in a single direction. The findings bring the prospect of devices powered by such motors a tantalizing step closer. See Letter p.235

Jonathan Clayden

doi: 10.1038/534187a

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The dawn of Homo floresiensis p.188

New fossil findings demonstrate that the diminutive hominin Homo floresiensis lived on the Indonesian island of Flores at least 700,000 years ago, and may point to its rapid dwarfism from the larger Homo erectus. See Letters p.245 & p.249

Aida Gómez-Robles

doi: 10.1038/534188a

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Perspective

Accounting for reciprocal host–microbiome interactions in experimental science p.191

This work highlights the critical challenges in experimental design and interpretation due to important combinatorial effects of host and microbial genes, and calls for the development of minimal reporting requirements to improve the interpretation and reproducibility of experimental biology.

Thaddeus S. Stappenbeck & Herbert W. Virgin

doi: 10.1038/nature18285

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Articles

The genetic history of Ice Age Europe p.200

Analysis of ancient genomic data of 51 humans from Eurasia dating from 45,000 to 7,000 years ago provides insight into the population history of pre-Neolithic Europe and support for recurring migration and population turnover in Europe during this period.

Qiaomei Fu, Cosimo Posth, Mateja Hajdinjak, Martin Petr, Swapan Mallick, Daniel Fernandes, Anja Furtwängler, Wolfgang Haak, Matthias Meyer, Alissa Mittnik + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17993

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Midbrain circuits for defensive behaviour p.206

A combination of optogenetic, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical tracing methods defines midbrain periaqueductal grey circuits for specific defensive behaviours.

Philip Tovote, Maria Soledad Esposito, Paolo Botta, Fabrice Chaudun, Jonathan P. Fadok, Milica Markovic, Steffen B. E. Wolff, Charu Ramakrishnan, Lief Fenno, Karl Deisseroth + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17996

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Acetate mediates a microbiome–brain–β-cell axis to promote metabolic syndrome p.213

Increased acetate production by an altered gut microbiota in rats fed a high-fat diet activates the parasympathetic nervous system, which in turn promotes increased insulin secretion, increased food intake, obesity and related changes.

Rachel J. Perry, Liang Peng, Natasha A. Barry, Gary W. Cline, Dongyan Zhang, Rebecca L. Cardone, Kitt Falk Petersen, Richard G. Kibbey, Andrew L. Goodman & Gerald I. Shulman

doi: 10.1038/nature18309

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Letters

Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole p.218

The so-called accretion flow that powers the growth of supermassive black holes in galaxy centres is assumed to be dominated by a smooth, steady flow of very hot plasma, but now observations instead reveal a clumpy accretion of very cold molecular clouds onto a supermassive black hole in the nucleus of a nearby giant elliptical galaxy.

Grant R. Tremblay, J. B. Raymond Oonk, Françoise Combes & Philippe Salomé

doi: 10.1038/nature17969

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Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit p.222

A digitized approach to adiabatic quantum computing, combining the generality of the adiabatic algorithm with the universality of the digital method, is implemented using a superconducting circuit to find the ground states of arbitrary Hamiltonians.

R. Barends, A. Shabani, L. Lamata, J. Kelly, A. Mezzacapo, U. Las Heras, R. Babbush, A. G. Fowler, B. Campbell, Yu Chen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17658

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Metastable high-entropy dual-phase alloys overcome the strength–ductility trade-off p.227

Metals have been mankind’s most essential materials for thousands of years; however, their use is affected by ecological and economical concerns. Alloys with higher strength and ductility could alleviate some of these concerns by reducing weight and improving energy efficiency. However, most metallurgical mechanisms for increasing strength lead to ductility loss, an effect referred to as the strength–ductility trade-off. Here we present a metastability-engineering strategy in which we design nanostructured, bulk high-entropy alloys with multiple compositionally equivalent high-entropy phases. High-entropy alloys were originally proposed to benefit from phase stabilization through entropy maximization. Yet here, motivated by recent work that relaxes the strict restrictions on high-entropy alloy compositions by demonstrating the weakness of this connection, the concept is overturned. We decrease phase stability to achieve two key benefits: interface hardening due to a dual-phase microstructure (resulting from reduced thermal stability of the high-temperature phase); and transformation-induced hardening (resulting from the reduced mechanical stability of the room-temperature phase). This combines the best of two worlds: extensive hardening due to the decreased phase stability known from advanced steels and massive solid-solution strengthening of high-entropy alloys. In our transformation-induced plasticity-assisted, dual-phase high-entropy alloy (TRIP-DP-HEA), these two contributions lead respectively to enhanced trans-grain and inter-grain slip resistance, and hence, increased strength. Moreover, the increased strain hardening capacity that is enabled by dislocation hardening of the stable phase and transformation-induced hardening of the metastable phase produces increased ductility. This combined increase in strength and ductility distinguishes the TRIP-DP-HEA alloy from other recently developed structural materials. This metastability-engineering strategy should thus usefully guide design in the near-infinite compositional space of high-entropy alloys.

Zhiming Li, Konda Gokuldoss Pradeep, Yun Deng, Dierk Raabe & Cemal Cem Tasan

doi: 10.1038/nature17981

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Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells p.231

A fundamentally different approach to designing solid oxide electrolytes is presented, using a phase transition to suppress electronic conduction in a correlated perovskite nickelate; this yields ionic conductivity comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range.

You Zhou, Xiaofei Guan, Hua Zhou, Koushik Ramadoss, Suhare Adam, Huajun Liu, Sungsik Lee, Jian Shi, Masaru Tsuchiya, Dillon D. Fong + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17653

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An autonomous chemically fuelled small-molecule motor p.235

A system is described in which a small macrocycle is continuously transported directionally around a cyclic molecular track when powered by irreversible reactions of a chemical fuel; such autonomous chemically fuelled molecular motors should find application as engines in molecular nanotechnology.

Miriam R. Wilson, Jordi Solà, Armando Carlone, Stephen M. Goldup, Nathalie Lebrasseur & David A. Leigh

doi: 10.1038/nature18013

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FeO2 and FeOOH under deep lower-mantle conditions and Earth’s oxygen–hydrogen cycles p.241

First-principles calculations and experiments are used to identify a stable, pyrite-structured iron oxide at 76 gigapascals and 1,800 kelvin that holds an excessive amount of oxygen and to show that goethite (rust) decomposes under these deep lower-mantle conditions to form an iron oxide and release hydrogen; this process provides another way to interpret the origin of seismic and geochemical anomalies in the deep lower mantle of Earth.

Qingyang Hu, Duck Young Kim, Wenge Yang, Liuxiang Yang, Yue Meng, Li Zhang & Ho-Kwang Mao

doi: 10.1038/nature18018

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Homofloresiensis-like fossils from the early Middle Pleistocene of Flores p.245

The evolutionary origin of Homo floresiensis, a diminutive hominin species previously known only by skeletal remains from Liang Bua in western Flores, Indonesia, has been intensively debated. It is a matter of controversy whether this primitive form, dated to the Late Pleistocene, evolved from early Asian Homo erectus and represents a unique and striking case of evolutionary reversal in hominin body and brain size within an insular environment. The alternative hypothesis is that H. floresiensis derived from an older, smaller-brained member of our genus, such as Homo habilis, or perhaps even late Australopithecus, signalling a hitherto undocumented dispersal of hominins from Africa into eastern Asia by two million years ago (2 Ma). Here we describe hominin fossils excavated in 2014 from an early Middle Pleistocene site (Mata Menge) in the So’a Basin of central Flores. These specimens comprise a mandible fragment and six isolated teeth belonging to at least three small-jawed and small-toothed individuals. Dating to ~0.7 Ma, these fossils now constitute the oldest hominin remains from Flores. The Mata Menge mandible and teeth are similar in dimensions and morphological characteristics to those of H. floresiensis from Liang Bua. The exception is the mandibular first molar, which retains a more primitive condition. Notably, the Mata Menge mandible and molar are even smaller in size than those of the two existing H. floresiensis individuals from Liang Bua. The Mata Menge fossils are derived compared with Australopithecus and H. habilis, and so tend to support the view that H. floresiensis is a dwarfed descendent of early Asian H. erectus. Our findings suggest that hominins on Flores had acquired extremely small body size and other morphological traits specific to H. floresiensis at an unexpectedly early time.

Gerrit D. van den Bergh, Yousuke Kaifu, Iwan Kurniawan, Reiko T. Kono, Adam Brumm, Erick Setiyabudi, Fachroel Aziz & Michael J. Morwood

doi: 10.1038/nature17999

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Age and context of the oldest known hominin fossils from Flores p.249

Stratigraphic, chronological, environmental and faunal context are provided to the newly discovered fossils of hominins that lived in the So’a Basin in Flores, Indonesia, 700,000 years ago; the stone tools recovered with the fossils are similar to those associated with the much younger Homo floresiensis from Flores, discovered in Liang Bua to the west.

Adam Brumm, Gerrit D. van den Bergh, Michael Storey, Iwan Kurniawan, Brent V. Alloway, Ruly Setiawan, Erick Setiyabudi, Rainer Grün, Mark W. Moore, Dida Yurnaldi + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17663

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Environmental Breviatea harbour mutualistic Arcobacter epibionts p.254

The cultivation of Lenisia limosa, a newly discovered breviate protist, symbiotically colonized by relatives of the animal-associated bacterium Arcobacter.

Emmo Hamann, Harald Gruber-Vodicka, Manuel Kleiner, Halina E. Tegetmeyer, Dietmar Riedel, Sten Littmann, Jianwei Chen, Jana Milucka, Bernhard Viehweger, Kevin W. Becker + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18297

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Universality of human microbial dynamics p.259

A new computational method to characterize the dynamics of human-associated microbial communities is applied to data from two large-scale metagenomic studies, and suggests that gut and mouth microbiomes of healthy individuals are subjected to universal (that is, host-independent) dynamics, whereas skin microbiomes are shaped by the host environment; the method paves the way to designing general microbiome-based therapies.

Amir Bashan, Travis E. Gibson, Jonathan Friedman, Vincent J. Carey, Scott T. Weiss, Elizabeth L. Hohmann & Yang-Yu Liu

doi: 10.1038/nature18301

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The Brazilian Zika virus strain causes birth defects in experimental models p.267

The Zika virus can cross the placenta and cause intrauterine growth restriction, including microcephaly, in the SJL strain of mice; the virus can also infect human brain organoids, inducing cell death by apoptosis and disrupting cortical layers.

Fernanda R. Cugola, Isabella R. Fernandes, Fabiele B. Russo, Beatriz C. Freitas, João L. M. Dias, Katia P. Guimarães, Cecília Benazzato, Nathalia Almeida, Graciela C. Pignatari, Sarah Romero + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18296

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Overcoming mTOR resistance mutations with a new-generation mTOR inhibitor p.272

Inhibitors of the mTOR kinase are in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer; here, mutations in mTOR that can lead to drug resistance are investigated and the results are used to design a new class of mTOR inhibitors that can overcome this resistance.

Vanessa S. Rodrik-Outmezguine, Masanori Okaniwa, Zhan Yao, Chris J. Novotny, Claire McWhirter, Arpitha Banaji, Helen Won, Wai Wong, Mike Berger, Elisa de Stanchina + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17963

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Ribosome-dependent activation of stringent control p.277

The structure of a bacterial ribosome–RelA complex reveals that RelA, a protein recruited to the ribosome in the case of scarce amino acids, binds in a different location to translation factors, and that this binding event suppresses auto-inhibition to activate synthesis of the (p)ppGpp secondary messenger, thus initiating stringent control.

Alan Brown, Israel S. Fernández, Yuliya Gordiyenko & V. Ramakrishnan

doi: 10.1038/nature17675

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Charge-density analysis of an iron–sulfur protein at an ultra-high resolution of 0.48 Å p.281

The fine structures of proteins, such as the positions of hydrogen atoms, distributions of valence electrons and orientations of bound waters, are critical factors for determining the dynamic and chemical properties of proteins. Such information cannot be obtained by conventional protein X-ray analyses at 3.0–1.5 Å resolution, in which amino acids are fitted into atomically unresolved electron-density maps and refinement calculations are performed under strong restraints. Therefore, we usually supplement the information on hydrogen atoms and valence electrons in proteins with pre-existing common knowledge obtained by chemistry in small molecules. However, even now, computational calculation of such information with quantum chemistry also tends to be difficult, especially for polynuclear metalloproteins. Here we report a charge-density analysis of the high-potential iron–sulfur protein from the thermophilic purple bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum using X-ray data at an ultra-high resolution of 0.48 Å. Residual electron densities in the conventional refinement are assigned as valence electrons in the multipolar refinement. Iron 3d and sulfur 3p electron densities of the Fe4S4 cluster are visualized around the atoms. Such information provides the most detailed view of the valence electrons of the metal complex in the protein. The asymmetry of the iron–sulfur cluster and the protein environment suggests the structural basis of charge storing on electron transfer. Our charge-density analysis reveals many fine features around the metal complex for the first time, and will enable further theoretical and experimental studies of metalloproteins.

Yu Hirano, Kazuki Takeda & Kunio Miki

doi: 10.1038/nature18001

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