네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Reality check on reproducibility p.437

A survey of Nature readers revealed a high level of concern about the problem of irreproducible results. Researchers, funders and journals need to work together to make research more reliable.

doi: 10.1038/533437a

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Source material p.437

Geneticists and historians need to work together on using DNA to explore the past.

doi: 10.1038/533437b

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Crunch time p.438

Overtime pay for postdoctoral scientists is welcome — but could mean fewer positions.

doi: 10.1038/533438a

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News

News Features

The secret history of ancient toilets p.456

By scouring the remains of early loos and sewers, archaeologists are finding clues to what life was like in the Roman world and in other civilizations.

Chelsea Wald

doi: 10.1038/533456a

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News & Views

Choreography of protein synthesis p.472

Both nuclear genes and genes in organelles called mitochondria are involved in the assembly of the cellular energy-producing machinery. RNA-translation programs that coordinate the two systems have now been identified. See Article p.499

Martin Ott

doi: 10.1038/nature18436

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How black holes restrain old galaxies p.473

Supermassive black holes are thought to keep star formation under control by ejecting or stirring gas in galaxies. Observations of an old galaxy reveal a potential mechanism for how this process occurs. See Letter p.504

Marc Sarzi

doi: 10.1038/533473a

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Killer enzymes tethered p.474

Caspase enzymes promote cell death, but are also involved in sperm development in fruit flies. The discovery that, in sperm, caspase activation is restricted to the surface of organelles called mitochondria sheds light on this unusual role.

Shigekazu Nagata

doi: 10.1038/nature18439

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Ketamine steps out of the darkness p.477

The way in which ketamine exerts its antidepressant effects has been perplexing. Evidence that a metabolite of the drug is responsible, and acts on a different target from ketamine, might be the key to an answer. See Article p.481

Roberto Malinow

doi: 10.1038/nature17897

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Unexpected player in particle formation p.478

Three studies find that a family of organic compounds affects the formation and initial growth of atmospheric aerosol particles in clean air — with implications for our knowledge of the climate effects of aerosols. See Letters p.521 & 527

Chris Cappa

doi: 10.1038/533478a

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Articles

NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites p.481

The metabolism of ketamine to (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) is essential for its antidepressant effects, and the (2R,6R)-HNK enantiomer lacks ketamine-related side effects but exerts rapid and sustained antidepressant actions in mice; these antidepressant effects are independent of NMDAR inhibition but require AMPAR activity.

Panos Zanos, Ruin Moaddel, Patrick J. Morris, Polymnia Georgiou, Jonathan Fischell, Greg I. Elmer, Manickavasagom Alkondon, Peixiong Yuan, Heather J. Pribut, Nagendra S. Singh + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17998

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Carcinoma–astrocyte gap junctions promote brain metastasis by cGAMP transfer p.493

A heterotypic cell interaction between astrocytes and tumour cells colonizing the brain is discovered; by establishing gap junctions, tumour cells trigger the activation of innate immune response signalling in astrocytes, which results in the secretion of factors that support growth and chemoresistance in brain metastatic cells.

Qing Chen, Adrienne Boire, Xin Jin, Manuel Valiente, Ekrem Emrah Er, Alejandro Lopez-Soto, Leni S. Jacob, Ruzeen Patwa, Hardik Shah, Ke Xu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18268

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Synchronized mitochondrial and cytosolic translation programs p.499

The genes encoding the subunits of oxidative phosphorylation complexes are split between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, but their translation is synchronized by signalling from the cytosol to the mitochondria.

Mary T. Couvillion, Iliana C. Soto, Gergana Shipkovenska & L. Stirling Churchman

doi: 10.1038/nature18015

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Letters

Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds p.504

In order for quiescent galaxies to maintain their low-to-non-existent star formation, there must be a mechanism to remove or heat gas that would otherwise cool to form stars; now supermassive black hole winds that are sufficient to suppress star formation in such galaxies are reported.

Edmond Cheung, Kevin Bundy, Michele Cappellari, Sébastien Peirani, Wiphu Rujopakarn, Kyle Westfall, Renbin Yan, Matthew Bershady, Jenny E. Greene, Timothy M. Heckman + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18006

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A resonant chain of four transiting, sub-Neptune planets p.509

Transit timing variations of the four-planet system Kepler-223 are used to compute the long-term stability of the system, which has a chain of resonances; the results suggest that inward planetary migration, rather than in situ assembly, is responsible for the formation of some close-in sub-Neptune systems.

Sean M. Mills, Daniel C. Fabrycky, Cezary Migaszewski, Eric B. Ford, Erik Petigura & Howard Isaacson

doi: 10.1038/nature17445

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A high-temperature ferromagnetic topological insulating phase by proximity coupling p.513

Coupling a ferromagnetic insulator to a topological insulator induces a robust magnetic state at the interface, resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and the spin-momentum locking property of Dirac fermions, and leads to an extraordinary enhancement of the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature.

Ferhat Katmis, Valeria Lauter, Flavio S. Nogueira, Badih A. Assaf, Michelle E. Jamer, Peng Wei, Biswarup Satpati, John W. Freeland, Ilya Eremin, Don Heiman + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17635

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Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy p.517

Combining cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy with buffer gas cooling enables rapid collection of well-resolved infrared spectra for molecules such as nitromethane, naphthalene and adamantane, confirming the value of the combined approach for studying much larger and more complex molecules than have been probed so far.

Ben Spaun, P. Bryan Changala, David Patterson, Bryce J. Bjork, Oliver H. Heckl, John M. Doyle & Jun Ye

doi: 10.1038/nature17440

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Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles OPEN p.521

Aerosol particles can form in the atmosphere by nucleation of highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid, with ions from Galactic cosmic rays increasing the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation.

Jasper Kirkby, Jonathan Duplissy, Kamalika Sengupta, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Christina Williamson, Martin Heinritzi, Mario Simon, Chao Yan, João Almeida + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17953

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The role of low-volatility organic compounds in initial particle growth in the atmosphere OPEN p.527

The growth of nucleated organic particles has been investigated in controlled laboratory experiments under atmospheric conditions; initial growth is driven by organic vapours of extremely low volatility, and accelerated by more abundant vapours of slightly higher volatility, leading to markedly different modelled concentrations of atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei when this growth mechanism is taken into account.

Jasmin Tröstl, Wayne K. Chuang, Hamish Gordon, Martin Heinritzi, Chao Yan, Ugo Molteni, Lars Ahlm, Carla Frege, Federico Bianchi, Robert Wagner + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature18271

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Competitive growth in a cooperative mammal p.532

In wild Kalahari meerkats (Suricata suricatta), subordinates of both sexes respond to experimentally induced increases in the growth of same-sex rivals by raising their own growth rate and food intake.

Elise Huchard, Sinead English, Matt B. V. Bell, Nathan Thavarajah & Tim Clutton-Brock

doi: 10.1038/nature17986

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How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation p.535

The ‘big-sperm paradox’, the observed production of few, gigantic sperm by some fruit flies (seemingly at odds with fundamental theory addressing how sexual selection works) is shown to be a result of co-evolution driven by genetic and functional relationships between sperm length, design of the female reproductive tract and features of the mating system.

Stefan Lüpold, Mollie K. Manier, Nalini Puniamoorthy, Christopher Schoff, William T. Starmer, Shannon H. Buckley Luepold, John M. Belote & Scott Pitnick

doi: 10.1038/nature18005

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Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment p.539

A genome-wide association study in 293,723 individuals identifies 74 genetic variants associated with educational attainment, which, although only explaining a small proportion of the variation in educational attainment, highlights candidate genes and pathways for further study.

Aysu Okbay, Jonathan P. Beauchamp, Mark Alan Fontana, James J. Lee, Tune H. Pers, Cornelius A. Rietveld, Patrick Turley, Guo-Bo Chen, Valur Emilsson, S. Fleur W. Meddens + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17671

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Redirecting abiraterone metabolism to fine-tune prostate cancer anti-androgen therapy p.547

The prostate cancer drug abiraterone can be metabolized into several substances with different effects, and optimization of this process could be helpful for fine-tuning the treatment of prostate cancer.

Zhenfei Li, Mohammad Alyamani, Jianneng Li, Kevin Rogacki, Mohamed Abazeed, Sunil K. Upadhyay, Steven P. Balk, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Richard J. Auchus & Nima Sharifi

doi: 10.1038/nature17954

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Structural insights into inhibition of lipid I production in bacterial cell wall synthesis p.557

The crystal structure of the MraY enzyme from Aquifex aeolicus in complex with the naturally occurring nucleoside inhibitor muraymycin D2 (MD2) reveals that MraY undergoes a large conformational rearrangement near the active site after the binding of MD2, leading to the generation of a nucleoside-binding pocket and a peptide-binding site.

Ben C. Chung, Ellene H. Mashalidis, Tetsuya Tanino, Mijung Kim, Akira Matsuda, Jiyong Hong, Satoshi Ichikawa & Seok-Yong Lee

doi: 10.1038/nature17636

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