네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Second thoughts p.291

Revisting the past can help to inform ideas of the present.

doi: 10.1038/533291b

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Zika must remain a high priority p.291

Although the evidence suggests that the Olympic Games are safe to proceed, the global health community must not let the Zika virus fade from the research agenda until the threat is wiped out.

doi: 10.1038/533291a

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Open medicine p.292

Governments need to tighten regulation if the sharing of clinical-trial data is to succeed.

doi: 10.1038/533292a

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News

News Features

The race to create super-crops p.308

Old-fashioned breeding techniques are bearing more fruit than genetic engineering in developing hyper-efficient plants.

Natasha Gilbert

doi: 10.1038/533308a

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News & Views

Virtual reality explored p.324

Neuroscientists are increasingly using virtual reality to facilitate studies of animal behaviour, but whether behaviour in the virtual world mimics that in real life is a matter for debate. Here, scientists discuss the strengths and limitations of the approach.

Matthias Minderer, Christopher D. Harvey, Flavio Donato & Edvard I. Moser

doi: 10.1038/nature17899

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Fighting evolution with chemical synthesis p.326

A synthetic strategy has been developed that provides easy access to structurally diverse analogues of naturally occurring antibiotics, providing a fresh means of attack in the war against drug-resistant bacteria. See Article p.338

Ming Yan & Phil S. Baran

doi: 10.1038/533326a

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A deliberate mix-up in flavour p.327

Neutrinos come in three 'flavours', as do antineutrinos, and they all change flavour as they travel. New measurements of the mixing of different neutrinos may help to explain why our Universe is made of matter and not antimatter.

Helen O'Keeffe

doi: 10.1038/533327a

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Limb regrowth takes two p.328

Salamanders can regenerate several of their organs, including amputated limbs. Analysis of a Mexican salamander shows that crosstalk between two signalling molecules regulates limb regeneration. See Letter p.407

Miguel Torres

doi: 10.1038/nature17889

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Illuminating brown dwarfs p.330

Objects known as brown dwarfs are midway between stars and planets in mass. Observations of a hot brown dwarf irradiated by a nearby star will help to fill a gap in our knowledge of the atmospheres of fluid planetary objects. See Letter p.366

Adam P. Showman

doi: 10.1038/533330a

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Snapshots of transcription initiation p.331

The enzyme RNA polymerase II, along with several transcription factors, initiates DNA transcription. Analyses reveal the structures involved in this process in human and yeast cells at high-resolution. See Articles p.353 & p.359

Steven Hahn & Stephen Buratowski

doi: 10.1038/nature18437

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Analysis

Reproducible pharmacogenomic profiling of cancer cell line panels p.333

Large-scale analyses of the drug sensitivity of cancer cell lines have been previously reported to yield conflicting conclusions; this Analysis uses independently generated data to demonstrate that consistency can be achieved if key laboratory and data analysis practices are considered when future studies are undertaken.

Peter M. Haverty, Eva Lin, Jenille Tan, Yihong Yu, Billy Lam, Steve Lianoglou, Richard M. Neve, Scott Martin, Jeff Settleman, Robert L. Yauch + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17987

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Articles

A platform for the discovery of new macrolide antibiotics p.338

A practical, fully synthetic route to macrolide antibiotics via the convergent assembly of simple chemical building blocks is described; more than 300 new macrolide antibiotic candidates have been synthesized using this approach, a number of which are active against bacterial strains that are resistant to currently used antibiotics.

Ian B. Seiple, Ziyang Zhang, Pavol Jakubec, Audrey Langlois-Mercier, Peter M. Wright, Daniel T. Hog, Kazuo Yabu, Senkara Rao Allu, Takehiro Fukuzaki, Peter N. Carlsen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17967

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Transcription initiation complex structures elucidate DNA opening p.353

The cryo-electron microscopy structures of yeast initiation complexes containing the transcription factors TBP, TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIIE, and TFIIF and containing either closed or open promoter DNA are reported, providing mechanistic insights into DNA opening and template-strand loading.

C. Plaschka, M. Hantsche, C. Dienemann, C. Burzinski, J. Plitzko & P. Cramer

doi: 10.1038/nature17990

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Near-atomic resolution visualization of human transcription promoter opening p.359

Cryo-electron microscopy structural models of the human pre-initiation complex at all major steps of transcription initiation at near atomic-level resolution are presented, providing new mechanistic insights into the processes of promoter melting and transcription-bubble formation, as well as an almost complete proposed structural model of all of the pre-initiation complex components and their interactions with DNA.

Yuan He, Chunli Yan, Jie Fang, Carla Inouye, Robert Tjian, Ivaylo Ivanov & Eva Nogales

doi: 10.1038/nature17970

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Letters

An irradiated brown-dwarf companion to an accreting white dwarf p.366

Spectroscopic detection and characterization of an irradiated substellar donor planet in an accreting white-dwarf binary system reveals a donor mass of 0.055 ± 0.008 solar masses, an average spectral type of L1 ± 1 and an average irradiation-induced temperature difference between the dayside and nightside of 57 kelvin.

Juan V. Hernández Santisteban, Christian Knigge, Stuart P. Littlefair, Rene P. Breton, Vikram S. Dhillon, Boris T. Gänsicke, Thomas R. Marsh, Magaretha L. Pretorius, John Southworth & Peter H. Hauschildt

doi: 10.1038/nature17952

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Self-assembly of coherently dynamic, auxetic, two-dimensional protein crystals p.369

Mutants of the C4-symmetric protein RhuA were designed to self-assemble into two-dimensional crystalline lattices with precise spatial arrangements and patterns; the lattices of one of the variants are auxetic and deform perpendicularly to an applied force in a way that is contrary to what is generally expected in typical materials.

Yuta Suzuki, Giovanni Cardone, David Restrepo, Pablo D. Zavattieri, Timothy S. Baker & F. Akif Tezcan

doi: 10.1038/nature17633

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Iron(III)-catalysed carbonyl–olefin metathesis p.374

The olefin metathesis reaction of two unsaturated substrates is one of the most powerful carbon–carbon-bond-forming reactions in organic chemistry. Specifically, the catalytic olefin metathesis reaction has led to profound developments in the synthesis of molecules relevant to the petroleum, materials, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. These reactions are characterized by their use of discrete metal alkylidene catalysts that operate via a well-established mechanism. While the corresponding carbonyl–olefin metathesis reaction can also be used to construct carbon–carbon bonds, currently available methods are scarce and severely hampered by either harsh reaction conditions or the required use of stoichiometric transition metals as reagents. To date, no general protocol for catalytic carbonyl–olefin metathesis has been reported. Here we demonstrate a catalytic carbonyl–olefin ring-closing metathesis reaction that uses iron, an Earth-abundant and environmentally benign transition metal, as a catalyst. This transformation accommodates a variety of substrates and is distinguished by its operational simplicity, mild reaction conditions, high functional-group tolerance, and amenability to gram-scale synthesis. We anticipate that these characteristics, coupled with the efficiency of this reaction, will allow for further advances in areas that have historically been enhanced by olefin metathesis.

Jacob R. Ludwig, Paul M. Zimmerman, Joseph B. Gianino & Corinna S. Schindler

doi: 10.1038/nature17432

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Changing atmospheric CO2 concentration was the primary driver of early Cenozoic climate p.380

A reconstruction of atmospheric CO2 concentration from boron isotopes recorded in planktonic foraminifera examines climate–carbon interactions over the past tens of millions of years and confirms a strong linkage between climate and atmospheric CO2.

Eleni Anagnostou, Eleanor H. John, Kirsty M. Edgar, Gavin L. Foster, Andy Ridgwell, Gordon N. Inglis, Richard D. Pancost, Daniel J. Lunt & Paul N. Pearson

doi: 10.1038/nature17423

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Repeated large-scale retreat and advance of Totten Glacier indicated by inland bed erosion p.385

The stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and its contribution to past sea-level rise are not well defined; in this paper, airborne geophysical data and ice-sheet models are used to show that the Totten Glacier has undergone large-scale retreats and advances, and that it could contribute several metres of sea-level rise in a fully retreated scenario.

A. R. A. Aitken, J. L. Roberts, T. D. van Ommen, D. A. Young, N. R. Golledge, J. S. Greenbaum, D. D. Blankenship & M. J. Siegert

doi: 10.1038/nature17447

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Metabolic acceleration and the evolution of human brain size and life history p.390

Compared to other apes, humans live longer, reproduce faster and have larger brains; here, total energy expenditure is studied in humans and all species of great ape, and is shown to be significantly higher in humans, demonstrating that the human lineage has experienced an energy-boosting acceleration in metabolic rate.

Herman Pontzer, Mary H. Brown, David A. Raichlen, Holly Dunsworth, Brian Hare, Kara Walker, Amy Luke, Lara R. Dugas, Ramon Durazo-Arvizu, Dale Schoeller + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17654

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Deep-sea diversity patterns are shaped by energy availability p.393

Depth-dependent patterns in ocean species diversity can be explained by latitudinal variations in energy availability, with shelf and upper-slope diversity increasing with thermal energy availability, and deep-sea diversity increasing with chemical energy availability; the discovery of these distinct patterns could help to guide the conservation and management of these remote ecosystems.

Skipton N. C. Woolley, Derek P. Tittensor, Piers K. Dunstan, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, José J. Lahoz-Monfort, Brendan A. Wintle, Boris Worm & Timothy D. O’Hara

doi: 10.1038/nature17937

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Local fitness landscape of the green fluorescent protein p.397

Comprehensive genotype–phenotype mapping of the green fluorescent protein shows that the local fitness peak is narrow, shaped by a high prevalence of epistatic interactions, providing for the loss of fluorescence when the joint effect of mutations exceeds a threshold.

Karen S. Sarkisyan, Dmitry A. Bolotin, Margarita V. Meer, Dinara R. Usmanova, Alexander S. Mishin, George V. Sharonov, Dmitry N. Ivankov, Nina G. Bozhanova, Mikhail S. Baranov, Onuralp Soylemez + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17995

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FGF8 and SHH substitute for anterior–posterior tissue interactions to induce limb regeneration p.407

The long-standing puzzle of why salamander limb regeneration requires anterior and posterior tissue interaction has been solved by the demonstration that fibroblast growth factor 8 and sonic hedgehog are key anterior and posterior cross-inductive signals that drive regeneration.

Eugeniu Nacu, Elena Gromberg, Catarina R. Oliveira, David Drechsel & Elly M. Tanaka

doi: 10.1038/nature17972

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An obligatory role for neurotensin in high-fat-diet-induced obesity p.411

Neurotensin, a peptide expressed in the enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine that is released upon fat ingestion, is shown to increase fatty acid absorption, with neurotensin-deficient mice being protected from obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

Jing Li, Jun Song, Yekaterina Y. Zaytseva, Yajuan Liu, Piotr Rychahou, Kai Jiang, Marlene E. Starr, Ji Tae Kim, Jennifer W. Harris, Frederique B. Yiannikouris + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17662

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Maintenance and propagation of a deleterious mitochondrial genome by the mitochondrial unfolded protein response p.416

In the context of mitochondrial genome heteroplasmy that causes defective oxidative phosphorylation in C. elegans, the ATFS-1-mediated mitochondrial unfolded protein response maintains the deleterious mitochondrial DNA in an attempt to recover oxidative phosphorylation activity and avoid cellular dysfunction.

Yi-Fan Lin, Anna M. Schulz, Mark W. Pellegrino, Yun Lu, Shai Shaham & Cole M. Haynes

doi: 10.1038/nature17989

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Programmable editing of a target base in genomic DNA without double-stranded DNA cleavage p.420

CRISPR/Cas9 DNA editing creates a double-stranded break in the target DNA, which can frequently generate random insertion or deletion of bases (indels); a new genome editing approach combining Cas9 with a cytidine deaminase is described here, which corrects point mutations more efficiently than canonical Cas9, while avoiding double-stranded breaks and indel formation.

Alexis C. Komor, Yongjoo B. Kim, Michael S. Packer, John A. Zuris & David R. Liu

doi: 10.1038/nature17946

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Structure of the thermally stable Zika virus p.425

The 3.7 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of Zika virus is presented, revealing a typical flavivirus architecture; in contrast to the related flavivirus dengue virus, Zika virus is thermally stable at 40 °C, and this structural stability may be a feature that helps it to survive in semen, saliva and urine.

Victor A. Kostyuchenko, Elisa X. Y. Lim, Shuijun Zhang, Guntur Fibriansah, Thiam-Seng Ng, Justin S. G. Ooi, Jian Shi & Shee-Mei Lok

doi: 10.1038/nature17994

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