네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Mothers’ milk p.145

The safe use of medicines during breastfeeding is not an easy topic to study, but new parents deserve better information on the risks and benefits.

doi: 10.1038/533145a

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Market forces p.145

A European plan to commercialize quantum technologies needs a bold goal.

doi: 10.1038/533145b

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Smoke out p.146

Scientists should unite over electronic-cigarette regulation, or big tobacco will step in.

doi: 10.1038/533146a

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News

News Features

The human side of cybercrime p.164

As cyberattacks grow ever more sophisticated, those who defend against them are embracing behavioural science and economics to understand both the perpetrators and their victims.

M. Mitchell Waldrop

doi: 10.1038/533164a

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News & Views

Implantation barrier overcome p.182

The early stages of human development are normally hidden within the womb, but improved techniques for culturing embryos from the blastocyst stage promise to make these steps easier to investigate. See Letter p.251

Janet Rossant

doi: 10.1038/nature17894

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Precision pruning of molecules p.183

If organic molecules were trees, then the numerous carbon–hydrogen bonds within them would be leaves. A catalyst that targets one 'leaf' out of many similar other ones looks set to be a huge leap for synthetic chemistry. See Letter p.230

Kin S. Yang & Keary M. Engle

doi: 10.1038/533183a

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Ancient air caught by shooting stars p.184

Ashes of ancient meteors recovered from a 2.7-billion-year-old lake bed imply that the upper atmosphere was rich in oxygen at a time when all other evidence implies that the atmosphere was oxygen-free. See Letter p.235

Kevin Zahnle & Roger Buick

doi: 10.1038/533184a

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Quasiparticles on a collision course p.186

Emergent quanta of momentum and charge, called quasiparticles, govern many of the properties of materials. The development of a quasiparticle collider promises to reveal fundamental insights into these peculiar entities. See Letter p.225

Dirk van der Marel

doi: 10.1038/533186a

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Fresh solutions to the four-body problem p.187

Describing the motion of three or more bodies under the influence of gravity is one of the toughest problems in astronomy. The report of solutions to a large subclass of the four-body problem is truly remarkable.

Douglas P. Hamilton

doi: 10.1038/nature17896

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Wired for sex p.188

Analysis of a sensory neural circuit in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans reveals that its wiring is sex-specific, and arises through the elimination of connections that are originally formed in both sexes. See Article p.206

Douglas S. Portman

doi: 10.1038/nature17898

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Review

Palaeoclimatic insights into forcing and response of monsoon rainfall p.191

Palaeoclimatic evidence of monsoon rainfall dynamics across different regions and timescales suggests that monsoon systems exhibit substantial regional variation; meridional temperature gradients are a major driver of monsoon variability, but these gradients are influenced by other, interacting forcing mechanisms, making predictions of future changes in monsoon rainfall highly uncertain.

Mahyar Mohtadi, Matthias Prange & Stephan Steinke

doi: 10.1038/nature17450

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Articles

The Atlantic salmon genome provides insights into rediploidization OPEN p.200

The genome sequence is presented for the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), providing information about a rediploidization following a salmonid-specific whole-genome duplication event that resulted in an autotetraploidization.

Sigbjørn Lien, Ben F. Koop, Simen R. Sandve, Jason R. Miller, Matthew P. Kent, Torfinn Nome, Torgeir R. Hvidsten, Jong S. Leong, David R. Minkley, Aleksey Zimin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17164

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Sex-specific pruning of neuronal synapses in Caenorhabditis elegans p.206

How sex-specific neuronal circuits are generated during development is poorly understood; here, sensory neurons are identified in the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans, which initially connect in both male- and hermaphrodite-specific patterns, but a specific subset of these connections is pruned by each sex upon sexual maturation to produce sex-specific connectivity patterns and dimorphic behaviours.

Meital Oren-Suissa, Emily A. Bayer & Oliver Hobert

doi: 10.1038/nature17977

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Interconnected microbiomes and resistomes in low-income human habitats p.212

An analysis of bacterial community structure and antibiotic resistance gene content of interconnected human faecal and environmental samples from two low-income communities in Latin America was carried out using a combination of functional metagenomics, 16S sequencing and shotgun sequencing; resistomes across habitats are generally structured along ecological gradients, but key resistance genes can cross these boundaries, and the authors assessed the usefulness of excreta management protocols in the prevention of resistance gene dissemination.

Erica C. Pehrsson, Pablo Tsukayama, Sanket Patel, Melissa Mejía-Bautista, Giordano Sosa-Soto, Karla M. Navarrete, Maritza Calderon, Lilia Cabrera, William Hoyos-Arango, M. Teresita Bertoli + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17672

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Letters

No Sun-like dynamo on the active star ζ Andromedae from starspot asymmetry p.217

Sunspots are cool areas caused by strong surface magnetic fields that inhibit convection. Moreover, strong magnetic fields can alter the average atmospheric structure, degrading our ability to measure stellar masses and ages. Stars that are more active than the Sun have more and stronger dark spots than does the Sun, including on the rotational pole. Doppler imaging, which has so far produced the most detailed images of surface structures on other stars, cannot always distinguish the hemisphere in which the starspots are located, especially in the equatorial region and if the data quality is not optimal. This leads to problems in investigating the north–south distribution of starspot active latitudes (those latitudes with more starspot activity); this distribution is a crucial constraint of dynamo theory. Polar spots, whose existence is inferred from Doppler tomography, could plausibly be observational artefacts. Here we report imaging of the old, magnetically active star ζ Andromedae using long-baseline infrared interferometry. In our data, a dark polar spot is seen in each of two observation epochs, whereas lower-latitude spot structures in both hemispheres do not persist between observations, revealing global starspot asymmetries. The north–south symmetry of active latitudes observed on the Sun is absent on ζ And, which hosts global spot patterns that cannot be produced by solar-type dynamos.

R. M. Roettenbacher, J. D. Monnier, H. Korhonen, A. N. Aarnio, F. Baron, X. Che, R. O. Harmon, Zs. Kővári, S. Kraus, G. H. Schaefer + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17444

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Temperate Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star p.221

Three Earth-sized planets—receiving similar irradiation to Venus and Earth, and ideally suited for atmospheric study—have been found transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star that has a mass of only eight per cent of that of the Sun.

Michaël Gillon, Emmanuël Jehin, Susan M. Lederer, Laetitia Delrez, Julien de Wit, Artem Burdanov, Valérie Van Grootel, Adam J. Burgasser, Amaury H. M. J. Triaud, Cyrielle Opitom + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17448

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Lightwave-driven quasiparticle collisions on a subcycle timescale p.225

A quasiparticle collider is developed that uses femtosecond optical pulses to create electron–hole pairs in the layered dichalcogenide tungsten diselenide, and a strong terahertz field to accelerate and collide the electrons with the holes.

F. Langer, M. Hohenleutner, C. P. Schmid, C. Poellmann, P. Nagler, T. Korn, C. Schüller, M. S. Sherwin, U. Huttner, J. T. Steiner + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17958

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Site-selective and stereoselective functionalization of unactivated C–H bonds p.230

The idea of carbon–hydrogen functionalization, in which C–H bonds are modified at will, represents a paradigm shift in the standard logic of organic synthesis; here, dirhodium catalysts are used to achieve highly site-selective, diastereoselective and enantioselective C–H functionalization of n-alkanes and terminally substituted n-alkyl compounds.

Kuangbiao Liao, Solymar Negretti, Djamaladdin G. Musaev, John Bacsa & Huw M. L. Davies

doi: 10.1038/nature17651

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Ancient micrometeorites suggestive of an oxygen-rich Archaean upper atmosphere p.235

Evidence in support of low atmospheric oxygen concentrations on early Earth relates to the composition of the lower Archaean atmosphere; now the composition of fossil micrometeorites preserved in 2.7-billion-year-old rocks in Australia suggests that they were oxidized in an oxygen-rich Archaean upper atmosphere.

Andrew G. Tomkins, Lara Bowlt, Matthew Genge, Siobhan A. Wilson, Helen E. A. Brand & Jeremy L. Wykes

doi: 10.1038/nature17678

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First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange p.243

Here, 21-million-year-old fossils of a New World monkey from Panama are described, constituting the earliest known evidence for mammalian interchange between North and South America.

Jonathan I. Bloch, Emily D. Woodruff, Aaron R. Wood, Aldo F. Rincon, Arianna R. Harrington, Gary S. Morgan, David A. Foster, Camilo Montes, Carlos A. Jaramillo, Nathan A. Jud + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17415

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Restoring cortical control of functional movement in a human with quadriplegia p.247

Signals recorded from motor cortex—through an intracortical implant—can be linked in real-time to activation of forearm muscles to restore movement in a paralysed human.

Chad E. Bouton, Ammar Shaikhouni, Nicholas V. Annetta, Marcia A. Bockbrader, David A. Friedenberg, Dylan M. Nielson, Gaurav Sharma, Per B. Sederberg, Bradley C. Glenn, W. Jerry Mysiw + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17435

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Self-organization of the in vitro attached human embryo p.251

An in vitro model to study the early events that direct human embryo development after formation of the blastocyst and implantation in the uterine wall.

Alessia Deglincerti, Gist F. Croft, Lauren N. Pietila, Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz, Eric D. Siggia & Ali H. Brivanlou

doi: 10.1038/nature17948

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The evolution of cooperation within the gut microbiota p.255

Little is known about cooperative behaviour among the gut microbiota; here, limited cooperation is demonstrated for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, but Bacteroides ovatus is found to extracellularly digest a polysaccharide not for its own use, but to cooperatively feed other species such as Bacteroides vulgatus from which it receives return benefits.

Seth Rakoff-Nahoum, Kevin R. Foster & Laurie E. Comstock

doi: 10.1038/nature17626

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Molecular mechanism of APC/C activation by mitotic phosphorylation p.260

Phosphorylation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) allows for its control by the co-activator Cdc20; a mechanism that has relevance to understanding the control of other large multimeric complexes by phosphorylation.

Suyang Zhang, Leifu Chang, Claudio Alfieri, Ziguo Zhang, Jing Yang, Sarah Maslen, Mark Skehel & David Barford

doi: 10.1038/nature17973

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Architecture of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter p.269

The structure of the core region of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is determined by NMR and electron microscopy, revealing that MCU is a homo-pentamer with a specific transmembrane helix forming a hydrophilic pore across the membrane, and representing one of the largest membrane protein structures characterized by NMR spectroscopy.

Kirill Oxenoid, Ying Dong, Chan Cao, Tanxing Cui, Yasemin Sancak, Andrew L. Markhard, Zenon Grabarek, Liangliang Kong, Zhijun Liu, Bo Ouyang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17656

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Extra-helical binding site of a glucagon receptor antagonist p.274

The X-ray crystal structure of the transmembrane portion of the human glucagon receptor, a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is solved in the presence of the antagonist MK-0893, with potential implications for the development of therapeutics that target other class B GPCRs.

Ali Jazayeri, Andrew S. Doré, Daniel Lamb, Harini Krishnamurthy, Stacey M. Southall, Asma H. Baig, Andrea Bortolato, Markus Koglin, Nathan J. Robertson, James C. Errey + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17414

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