네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Monkeying around p.281

China, with its freedom from the ethical pressures experienced by researchers elsewhere, is poised to become the go-to country for work on non-human primates.

doi: 10.1038/532281a

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Expect knowledge p.282

We are gratified when a politician shows that they know about science, but they all should.

doi: 10.1038/532282b

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Red-tape tangle p.282

Attempts by the European Union to stimulate innovation are stifled by bureaucracy.

doi: 10.1038/532282a

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News

News Features

Monkey kingdom p.300

China is positioning itself as a world leader in primate research.

David Cyranoski

doi: 10.1038/532300a

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News & Views

Eating for trillions p.316

Three studies investigate the bacteria in the guts of malnourished children and find that, when this microbiota is transferred into mice, supplements of certain microbes or sugars from human breast milk can restore normal growth.

Derrick M. Chu & Kjersti M. Aagaard

doi: 10.1038/nature17887

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Misconceptions of global catastrophe p.317

American attitudes to changing weather, and therefore to climate change, have been analysed on the basis of US migration patterns since the 1970s. The findings have implications for the success of global climate policies. See Letter p.357

Joacim Rocklöv

doi: 10.1038/532317a

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An elusive DNA base in mammals p.319

The discovery of a modified version of the base adenine, known as N6-methyladenine, in mouse DNA puts paid to the theory that cytosine derivatives are the only modified bases in mammals. See Article p.329

Gerd P. Pfeifer

doi: 10.1038/nature17315

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Antidepressants at work p.320

Structures of the serotonin transporter protein SERT in complex with two different antidepressants shed light on how these drugs act, and point to possible targets for future drug development. See Article p.334

Marc G. Caron & Ulrik Gether

doi: 10.1038/nature17883

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Organelle stress triggers inflammation p.321

The intracellular NOD1 and NOD2 receptors have been found to activate innate inflammation when a condition known as endoplasmic reticulum stress is induced by bacterial infection. See Letter p.394

Bennett H. Penn & Jeffery S. Cox

doi: 10.1038/nature17882

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Articles

Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis p.323

Bone marrow endothelial cells have dual roles in the regulation of haematopoietic stem cell maintenance and in the trafficking of blood cells between the bone marrow and the blood circulatory system; this study shows that these different functions are regulated by distinct types of endothelial blood vessels with different permeability properties, affecting the metabolic state of their neighbouring stem cells.

Tomer Itkin, Shiri Gur-Cohen, Joel A. Spencer, Amir Schajnovitz, Saravana K. Ramasamy, Anjali P. Kusumbe, Guy Ledergor, Yookyung Jung, Idan Milo, Michael G. Poulos + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17624

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DNA methylation on N6-adenine in mammalian embryonic stem cells p.329

The prevalence of N6-adenine DNA methylation in mammals was previously unknown; this study reveals that N6-methyladenine can be found in mouse embryonic stem cells, especially at subfamilies of young (<1.5 million years old) LINE-1 transposons.

Tao P. Wu, Tao Wang, Matthew G. Seetin, Yongquan Lai, Shijia Zhu, Kaixuan Lin, Yifei Liu, Stephanie D. Byrum, Samuel G. Mackintosh, Mei Zhong + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17640

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X-ray structures and mechanism of the human serotonin transporter p.334

X-ray crystal structures of the human serotonin transporter (SERT) bound to the antidepressants (S)-citalopram or paroxetine show that the antidepressants lock the protein in an outward-open conformation, and directly block serotonin from entering its binding site; the structures define the mechanism of antidepressant action in SERT and pave the way for future drug design.

Jonathan A. Coleman, Evan M. Green & Eric Gouaux

doi: 10.1038/nature17629

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Letters

A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core p.340

The galaxy NGC 1600 is found to contain an enormous black hole of 17 billion solar masses—the first black hole of such a size to be found in an environment outside the richest clusters of galaxies.

Jens Thomas, Chung-Pei Ma, Nicholas J. McConnell, Jenny E. Greene, John P. Blakeslee & Ryan Janish

doi: 10.1038/nature17197

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Detection of a Cooper-pair density wave in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x p.343

The quantum condensate of Cooper pairs forming a superconductor was originally conceived as being translationally invariant. In theory, however, pairs can exist with finite momentum Q, thus generating a state with a spatially modulated Cooper-pair density. Such a state has been created in ultracold 6Li gas but never observed directly in any superconductor. It is now widely hypothesized that the pseudogap phase of the copper oxide superconductors contains such a ‘pair density wave’ state. Here we report the use of nanometre-resolution scanned Josephson tunnelling microscopy to image Cooper pair tunnelling from a d-wave superconducting microscope tip to the condensate of the superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x. We demonstrate condensate visualization capabilities directly by using the Cooper-pair density variations surrounding zinc impurity atoms and at the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x crystal supermodulation. Then, by using Fourier analysis of scanned Josephson tunnelling images, we discover the direct signature of a Cooper-pair density modulation at wavevectors QP ≈ (0.25, 0)2π/a0 and (0, 0.25)2π/a0 in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x. The amplitude of these modulations is about five per cent of the background condensate density and their form factor exhibits primarily s or s′ symmetry. This phenomenology is consistent with Ginzburg–Landau theory when a charge density wave with d-symmetry form factor and wavevector QC = QP coexists with a d-symmetry superconductor; it is also predicted by several contemporary microscopic theories for the pseudogap phase.

M. H. Hamidian, S. D. Edkins, Sang Hyun Joo, A. Kostin, H. Eisaki, S. Uchida, M. J. Lawler, E.-A. Kim, A. P. Mackenzie, K. Fujita + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17411

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A pressure-amplifying framework material with negative gas adsorption transitions p.348

For adsorption processes, gas uptake usually increases with increasing pressure; however, here the phenomenon of negative gas adsorption is demonstrated in a metal–organic framework, which undergoes a sudden hysteretic structural deformation and pore contraction, releasing guest molecules.

Simon Krause, Volodymyr Bon, Irena Senkovska, Ulrich Stoeck, Dirk Wallacher, Daniel M. Többens, Stefan Zander, Renjith S. Pillai, Guillaume Maurin, François-Xavier Coudert + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17430

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Recent improvement and projected worsening of weather in the United States p.357

Population-weighted analysis of US weather conditions shows that the nation’s weather has generally become more pleasant since 1974, possibly explaining the lack of broad public support for action on climate change; projections of future US weather indicate that conditions will probably worsen.

Patrick J. Egan & Megan Mullin

doi: 10.1038/nature17441

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The Parkfield tremors reveal slow and fast ruptures on the same asperity p.361

A tremor source on the San Andreas Fault produced an unusual sequence of low-frequency earthquakes until it was disrupted by the 2004 Parkfield earthquake; the peculiar recurrence pattern has now been modelled, showing that such slip behaviour occurs when the tremor asperity size is close to the critical nucleation size of earthquakes.

Deepa Mele Veedu & Sylvain Barbot

doi: 10.1038/nature17190

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Revised stratigraphy and chronology for Homo floresiensis at Liang Bua in Indonesia p.366

New excavations in Liang Bua, where the remains of the ‘Hobbit’ (Homo floresiensis) were discovered, show that this diminutive human species used this cave between 190,000 and 50,000 years ago, and not until as recently as 12,000 years ago as previously interpreted; modern humans have been present in Australia since around 50,000 years ago, so whether Homo floresiensis survived long enough to witness the arrival of modern humans is still an open question.

Thomas Sutikna, Matthew W. Tocheri, Michael J. Morwood & E. Wahyu Saptomo

doi: 10.1038/nature17179

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Anatomy and function of an excitatory network in the visual cortex p.370

Two-photon calcium imaging and electron microscopy were used to explore the relationship between structure and function in mouse primary visual cortex, showing that layer 2/3 neurons are connected in subnetworks, that pyramidal neurons with similar orientation selectivity preferentially form synapses with each other, and that neurons with similar orientation tuning form larger synapses; this study exemplifies functional connectomics as a powerful method for studying the organizational logic of cortical networks.

Wei-Chung Allen Lee, Vincent Bonin, Michael Reed, Brett J. Graham, Greg Hood, Katie Glattfelder & R. Clay Reid

doi: 10.1038/nature17192

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Daily magnesium fluxes regulate cellular timekeeping and energy balance p.375

Circadian rhythms in the intracellular concentration of magnesium ions act as a cell-autonomous timekeeping component to determine key clock properties and tune cellular metabolism both in a human cell line and in a unicellular alga.

Kevin A. Feeney, Louise L. Hansen, Marrit Putker, Consuelo Olivares-Yañez, Jason Day, Lorna J. Eades, Luis F. Larrondo, Nathaniel P. Hoyle, John S. O’Neill & Gerben van Ooijen

doi: 10.1038/nature17407

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Age-dependent modulation of vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells p.380

Notch signalling in endothelial cells of the bone induces change in the capillaries and mesenchymal stem cells of the environment to support haematopoietic stem cell amplification.

Anjali P. Kusumbe, Saravana K. Ramasamy, Tomer Itkin, Maarja Andaloussi Mäe, Urs H. Langen, Christer Betsholtz, Tsvee Lapidot & Ralf H. Adams

doi: 10.1038/nature17638

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NOD1 and NOD2 signalling links ER stress with inflammation p.394

A novel link between the unfolded protein response and NOD1/2 innate immune signalling, showing that NOD1/2 are required for ER-stress-induced IL-6 production in response to infection with Brucella abortus.

A. Marijke Keestra-Gounder, Mariana X. Byndloss, Núbia Seyffert, Briana M. Young, Alfredo Chávez-Arroyo, April Y. Tsai, Stephanie A. Cevallos, Maria G. Winter, Oanh H. Pham, Connor R. Tiffany + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17631

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USP14 deubiquitinates proteasome-bound substrates that are ubiquitinated at multiple sites p.398

The proteasome-associated enzyme USP14 regulates protein degradation by removing ubiquitin from proteins; here it is shown that USP14 removes ubiquitin chains from in vitro generated cyclin B conjugates en bloc and within milliseconds, before the proteasome has a chance to initiate degradation, and proceeds until a single chain remains.

Byung-Hoon Lee, Ying Lu, Miguel A. Prado, Yuan Shi, Geng Tian, Shuangwu Sun, Suzanne Elsasser, Steven P. Gygi, Randall W. King & Daniel Finley

doi: 10.1038/nature17433

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