네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Under appeal p.147

Don’t get too excited about that successful appeal against a grant rejection.

doi: 10.1038/532147b

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Breeding controls p.147

Scientists must help to inform regulators wrestling with how to handle the next generation of genetically engineered crops.

doi: 10.1038/532147a

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Destination Venus p.148

Findings from the Akatsuki mission should rekindle interest in Earth’s closest neighbour.

doi: 10.1038/532148a

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News

News Features

Cancer therapy: an evolved approach p.166

Tumours are subject to the same rules of natural selection as any other living thing. Clinicians are now putting that knowledge to use.

Cassandra Willyard

doi: 10.1038/532166a

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News & Views

Some begging is actually bragging p.180

A meta-analysis of 143 bird species finds huge variation in parental responses to chicks' begging signals, and shows that parental strategies depend on environmental factors, such as the predictability and quality of food supplies.

Douglas W. Mock

doi: 10.1038/nature17317

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Hard-to-reach repairs p.181

Two studies find that the molecular machinery that initiates gene transcription prevents repair proteins from accessing DNA, resulting in increased mutation rates at sites of transcription-factor binding. See Letters p.259 & p.264

Ekta Khurana

doi: 10.1038/532181a

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Not everything is scary about a glial scar p.182

After spinal-cord injury, cells called astrocytes form a scar that is thought to block neuronal regeneration. The finding that the scar promotes regrowth of long nerve projections called axons challenges this long-held dogma. See Article p.195

Shane A. Liddelow & Ben A. Barres

doi: 10.1038/nature17318

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Quantum problems solved through games p.184

Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210

Sabrina Maniscalco

doi: 10.1038/532184a

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Surprises from the sanitary engineers p.185

In mammals, microglial cells of the central nervous system are responsible for the normal clearance of dead brain cells. TAM-receptor proteins have now been found to mediate this function. See Letter p.240

Richard M. Ransohoff

doi: 10.1038/nature17881

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How rain affects rock and rivers p.186

An analysis of the evolution of river channels on Hawaii's Big Island shows that a key factor is the effect of local rainfall on bedrock strength — rather than its effect on river discharge, as is often assumed. See Letter p.223

Alison M. Anders

doi: 10.1038/532186a

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Articles

Hourglass fermions p.189

The energy–momentum relationship of certain fermions resembles an hourglass, which is movable but unremovable; this robust property follows from the intertwining of spatial symmetries with the band theory of crystals, revised with mathematical connections to topology and cohomology.

Zhijun Wang, A. Alexandradinata, R. J. Cava & B. Andrei Bernevig

doi: 10.1038/nature17410

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Astrocyte scar formation aids central nervous system axon regeneration p.195

Sustained delivery of axon-specific growth factors not typically present in spinal cord lesions allows for robust axonal regrowth only if the astrocytic scar is present—a result that questions the prevailing dogma and suggests that astrocytic scarring aids rather than prevents central nervous system axon regeneration post injury.

Mark A. Anderson, Joshua E. Burda, Yilong Ren, Yan Ao, Timothy M. O’Shea, Riki Kawaguchi, Giovanni Coppola, Baljit S. Khakh, Timothy J. Deming & Michael V. Sofroniew

doi: 10.1038/nature17623

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Modulation of tissue repair by regeneration enhancer elements p.201

An injury-dependent enhancer element is identified that activates gene expression in regenerating zebrafish tissues and can be engineered into DNA constructs that increase tissue regenerative capacity; the element is also active in injured mouse tissue.

Junsu Kang, Jianxin Hu, Ravi Karra, Amy L. Dickson, Valerie A. Tornini, Gregory Nachtrab, Matthew Gemberling, Joseph A. Goldman, Brian L. Black & Kenneth D. Poss

doi: 10.1038/nature17644

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Letters

A map of the large day–night temperature gradient of a super-Earth exoplanet p.207

A longitudinal thermal brightness map of the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cancri e reveals strong day–night temperature contrast, indicating inefficient heat redistribution consistent with 55 Cancri e either being devoid of atmosphere or having an optically thick atmosphere with heat recirculation confined to the planetary dayside.

Brice-Olivier Demory, Michael Gillon, Julien de Wit, Nikku Madhusudhan, Emeline Bolmont, Kevin Heng, Tiffany Kataria, Nikole Lewis, Renyu Hu, Jessica Krick + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17169

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Exploring the quantum speed limit with computer games p.210

The crowd sourcing and gamification of a problem in quantum computing are described; human players succeed in solving the problem where purely numerical optimization fails, providing insight into, and a starting point for, strategies for optimization.

Jens Jakob W. H. Sørensen, Mads Kock Pedersen, Michael Munch, Pinja Haikka, Jesper Halkjær Jensen, Tilo Planke, Morten Ginnerup Andreasen, Miroslav Gajdacz, Klaus Mølmer, Andreas Lieberoth + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17620

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Direct observation of dynamic shear jamming in dense suspensions p.214

Dense suspensions of hard granular particles can transform from liquid-like to solid-like when perturbed; a state diagram is mapped out that reveals how this transformation can occur via dynamic jamming at sufficiently large shear stress while leaving the particle density unchanged.

Ivo R. Peters, Sayantan Majumdar & Heinrich M. Jaeger

doi: 10.1038/nature17167

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Chemical weathering as a mechanism for the climatic control of bedrock river incision p.223

Climate-dependent chemical weathering is found to control the erodibility of bedrock-floored rivers across a rainfall gradient on the Kohala Peninsula, Hawai‘i; river erosion models that incorporate this process could improve the assessment of climatic controls from topographic data and the understanding of climatic feedbacks in landscape evolution models.

Brendan P. Murphy, Joel P. L. Johnson, Nicole M. Gasparini & Leonard S. Sklar

doi: 10.1038/nature17449

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Ritual human sacrifice promoted and sustained the evolution of stratified societies p.228

Phylogenetic methods were applied to a cross-cultural database of traditional Austronesian societies to test the link between ritual human sacrifice and the origins of social hierarchy—the presence of sacrifice in a society stabilized social stratification and promoted inherited class systems.

Joseph Watts, Oliver Sheehan, Quentin D. Atkinson, Joseph Bulbulia & Russell D. Gray

doi: 10.1038/nature17159

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Post-invasion demography of prehistoric humans in South America p.232

South America was the last habitable continent to be colonized by humans; using a database of 1,147 archaeological sites and 5,464 radiocarbon dates spanning 14,000 to 2,000 years ago reveals two phases of the population history of the continent—a rapid expansion through the continent at low population sizes for over 8,000 years and then a second phase of sedentary lifestyle and exponential population growth starting around 5,000 years ago.

Amy Goldberg, Alexis M. Mychajliw & Elizabeth A. Hadly

doi: 10.1038/nature17176

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A neuronal circuit for colour vision based on rod–cone opponency p.236

Colour vision is thought to rely on the comparison of signals from cone cells in the retina, this paper identifies a class of mouse retinal ganglion cells (J-RGC) that integrates an OFF signal from ultraviolet-sensitive cones with an ON signal from green-sensitive rods, producing a colour-opponent channel that may enable animals to detect urine territory marks; the underlying circuit may also explain why humans experience a blue shift in night-time vision.

Maximilian Joesch & Markus Meister

doi: 10.1038/nature17158

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TAM receptors regulate multiple features of microglial physiology p.240

Microglial phagocytosis is required for neurogenic niche maintenance and response to injury; the TAM kinases Mer and Axl are expressed by microglia in the adult CNS, and mediate the clearance of apoptotic cells from the niche.

Lawrence Fourgeaud, Paqui G. Través, Yusuf Tufail, Humberto Leal-Bailey, Erin D. Lew, Patrick G. Burrola, Perri Callaway, Anna Zagórska, Carla V. Rothlin, Axel Nimmerjahn + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17630

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The necrosome promotes pancreatic oncogenesis via CXCL1 and Mincle-induced immune suppression p.245

A study of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma shows that cancer cell proliferation is associated with increased expression of proteins that control programmed necrotic cell death and suppress the adaptive immune system.

Lena Seifert, Gregor Werba, Shaun Tiwari, Nancy Ngoc Giao Ly, Sara Alothman, Dalia Alqunaibit, Antonina Avanzi, Rocky Barilla, Donnele Daley, Stephanie H. Greco + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17403

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sFRP2 in the aged microenvironment drives melanoma metastasis and therapy resistance p.250

Aged fibroblasts release a Wnt antagonist, sFRP2, which drives a signalling cascade in melanoma cells, leading to increased metastasis and reduced effectiveness of targeted therapy.

Amanpreet Kaur, Marie R. Webster, Katie Marchbank, Reeti Behera, Abibatou Ndoye, Curtis H. Kugel, Vanessa M. Dang, Jessica Appleton, Michael P. O’Connell, Phil Cheng + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17392

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Reductive carboxylation supports redox homeostasis during anchorage-independent growth p.255

Malignant cells are able to survive and grow in detached conditions, despite the associated increase in reactive oxygen species; here a novel metabolic pathway used by cancer cells as they adapt to anchorage-independent growth is described.

Lei Jiang, Alexander A. Shestov, Pamela Swain, Chendong Yang, Seth J. Parker, Qiong A. Wang, Lance S. Terada, Nicholas D. Adams, Michael T. McCabe, Beth Pietrak + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17393

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Nucleotide excision repair is impaired by binding of transcription factors to DNA p.264

An analysis of cancer genomic data reveals an increased rate of somatic mutations at active transcription factor binding sites located both within promoter regions and distal from genes; the increased mutation rate at these genomic regions can be explained by reduced accessibility of the protein-bound DNA to nucleotide excision repair machinery.

Radhakrishnan Sabarinathan, Loris Mularoni, Jordi Deu-Pons, Abel Gonzalez-Perez & Núria López-Bigas

doi: 10.1038/nature17661

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