네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Metropolis now p.275

Growing urbanization is heralding a new era of science in the city.

doi: 10.1038/531275b

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Africa’s elite p.275

A new forum promises to bring deserved prestige to outstanding African researchers, and demonstrates the continent’s untapped potential.

doi: 10.1038/531275a

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Practical DNA p.276

The promise of DNA origami shows signs of coming to fruition a decade after its debut.

doi: 10.1038/531276a

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News

News Features

News & Views

How crystals get an edge p.308

Microscopy reveals how nanowires of a widely used semiconductor grow during preparation. The findings will allow the crystal phases of such nanowires to be engineered — a crucial advance for materials science. See Article p.317

Anna Fontcuberta i Morral

doi: 10.1038/531308a

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Visionary stem-cell therapies p.309

Stem-cell engineering has allowed successful cornea transplantations in rabbits and the regeneration of transparent lens tissue in children, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of this approach. See Article p.323 & Letter p.376

Julie T. Daniels

doi: 10.1038/nature17305

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China’s contribution to climate change p.310

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use in China have grown dramatically in the past few decades, yet it emerges that the country's relative contribution to global climate change has remained surprisingly constant. See Letter p.357

Dominick V. Spracklen

doi: 10.1038/531310a

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Swimmers by design p.312

Scientists have created soft microrobots whose body shapes can be controlled by structured light, and which self-propel by means of travelling-wave body deformations similar to those exhibited by swimming protozoa.

Igor S. Aranson

doi: 10.1038/531312a

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The X-Files of hepatitis B p.313

The HBx protein of hepatitis B virus has been found to co-opt a host-cell enzyme that targets the Smc5/6 protein complex for degradation. The finding identifies Smc5/6 as a cellular antiviral factor. See Letter p.386

T. Jake Liang

doi: 10.1038/531313a

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Turning back time p.314

An in situ experiment finds that reducing the acidity of the seawater surrounding a natural coral reef significantly increases reef calcification, suggesting that ocean acidification may already be slowing coral growth. See Letter p.362

Janice M. Lough

doi: 10.1038/nature17302

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Articles

Interface dynamics and crystal phase switching in GaAs nanowires p.317

Crystal phase switching between zinc-blende and wurtzite phases during the growth of gallium arsenide nanowires is observed experimentally, and explained via changes in the geometry of the catalytic droplet sitting on top of the growing nanowire.

Daniel Jacobsson, Federico Panciera, Jerry Tersoff, Mark C. Reuter, Sebastian Lehmann, Stephan Hofmann, Kimberly A. Dick & Frances M. Ross

doi: 10.1038/nature17148

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Lens regeneration using endogenous stem cells with gain of visual function p.323

A new procedure for cataract removal that preserves lens epithelial progenitor cells in mammals, which require Pax6 and Bmi1 for their self-renewal, achieves lens regeneration in rabbits, macaques and in infants with cataracts.

Haotian Lin, Hong Ouyang, Jie Zhu, Shan Huang, Zhenzhen Liu, Shuyi Chen, Guiqun Cao, Gen Li, Robert A. J. Signer, Yanxin Xu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17181

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Observing cellulose biosynthesis and membrane translocation in crystallo p.329

Here the authors use in crystallo enzymology to obtain structural snapshots of a complete cellulose biosynthesis cycle and reveal the mechanism by which the bacterial cellulose synthase BcsA–BcsB translocates the nascent cellulose polymer.

Jacob L. W. Morgan, Joshua T. McNamara, Michael Fischer, Jamie Rich, Hong-Ming Chen, Stephen G. Withers & Jochen Zimmer

doi: 10.1038/nature16966

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Crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors p.335

X-ray crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, revealing differences in the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites that help to explain the subtype selectivity of drugs targeting this family of receptors.

David M. Thal, Bingfa Sun, Dan Feng, Vindhya Nawaratne, Katie Leach, Christian C. Felder, Mark G. Bures, David A. Evans, William I. Weis, Priti Bachhawat + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17188

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Letters

Positron annihilation signatures associated with the outburst of the microquasar V404 Cygni p.341

Observations of γ-ray emission from the microquasar V404 Cygni during a recent period of strong flaring activity show spectral features at around 511 kiloelectronvolts, which are clear signatures of variable positron annihilation, implying a high rate of positron production.

Thomas Siegert, Roland Diehl, Jochen Greiner, Martin G. H. Krause, Andrei M. Beloborodov, Marion Cadolle Bel, Fabrizia Guglielmetti, Jerome Rodriguez, Andrew W. Strong & Xiaoling Zhang

doi: 10.1038/nature16978

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Late Tharsis formation and implications for early Mars p.344

By calculating the rotational figure of Mars and its surface topography before the Tharsis volcanic region caused true polar wander, it is shown that Tharsis formed during the Noachian and Hesperian periods at about the same time as the valley networks; early Mars climate simulations suggest icy precipitation in a latitudinal band in the southern hemisphere.

Sylvain Bouley, David Baratoux, Isamu Matsuyama, Francois Forget, Antoine Séjourné, Martin Turbet & Francois Costard

doi: 10.1038/nature17171

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Enhancing coherence in molecular spin qubits via atomic clock transitions p.348

Magnetic molecules are candidates for solid-state spin qubits from which a quantum computer might be constructed, but the magnetic interactions between such molecules typically lead to unwanted decoherence; now magnetic molecules have been designed in such a way that their spin dynamics are energetically protected against the decoherence-inducing interactions.

Muhandis Shiddiq, Dorsa Komijani, Yan Duan, Alejandro Gaita-Ariño, Eugenio Coronado & Stephen Hill

doi: 10.1038/nature16984

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Three-dimensional control of the helical axis of a chiral nematic liquid crystal by light p.352

Chiral nematic liquid crystals are self-organized helical superstructures in which the helices can stand or lie, and lie in either a uniform or a random way; here, the helices are reversibly driven from a standing arrangement to a uniform lying arrangement and then rotated in-plane—solely by light.

Zhi-gang Zheng, Yannian Li, Hari Krishna Bisoyi, Ling Wang, Timothy J. Bunning & Quan Li

doi: 10.1038/nature17141

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The contribution of China’s emissions to global climate forcing p.357

Using a global coupled biogeochemistry–climate model and a chemistry and transport model reveals that China’s present-day global radiative forcing is about ten per cent of the current global total, made up of both warming and cooling contributions; if in the future China reduces the cooling forcings, global warming could accelerate.

Bengang Li, Thomas Gasser, Philippe Ciais, Shilong Piao, Shu Tao, Yves Balkanski, Didier Hauglustaine, Juan-Pablo Boisier, Zhuo Chen, Mengtian Huang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17165

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Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification p.362

A manipulative experiment in which a reef is alkalinized in situ shows that calcification rates are likely to be lower already than they were in pre-industrial times because of acidification.

Rebecca Albright, Lilian Caldeira, Jessica Hosfelt, Lester Kwiatkowski, Jana K. Maclaren, Benjamin M. Mason, Yana Nebuchina, Aaron Ninokawa, Julia Pongratz, Katharine L. Ricke + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17155

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Vast assembly of vocal marine mammals from diverse species on fish spawning ground p.366

Vocalizations were recorded for over eight distinct whale species as they converged on a shoal of herring to feed; the predators divided the shoal into overlapping but species-specific foraging sectors and the activities of the whales changed between day and night.

Delin Wang, Heriberto Garcia, Wei Huang, Duong D. Tran, Ankita D. Jain, Dong Hoon Yi, Zheng Gong, J. Michael Jech, Olav Rune Godø, Nicholas C. Makris + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16960

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Sensory experience regulates cortical inhibition by inducing IGF1 in VIP neurons p.371

Igf1 is identified in mice as an experience-induced gene that functions cell-autonomously to increase inhibitory input onto a disinhibitory subtype of GABAergic neurons in the cortex, affecting the downstream excitation–inhibition balance within circuits that regulate visual acuity, and providing a novel example of experience modulating neural plasticity.

A. R. Mardinly, I. Spiegel, A. Patrizi, E. Centofante, J. E. Bazinet, C. P. Tzeng, C. Mandel-Brehm, D. A. Harmin, H. Adesnik, M. Fagiolini + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17187

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Co-ordinated ocular development from human iPS cells and recovery of corneal function p.376

A protocol has been developed to use human induced pluripotent stem cells to obtain a self-formed ectodermal autonomous multizone, which includes distinct cell lineages of the eye, including the ocular surface ectoderm, lens, neuro-retina, and retinal pigment epithelium that can be expanded to form a functional corneal epithelium when transplanted to an animal model of corneal visual impairment.

Ryuhei Hayashi, Yuki Ishikawa, Yuzuru Sasamoto, Ryosuke Katori, Naoki Nomura, Tatsuya Ichikawa, Saori Araki, Takeshi Soma, Satoshi Kawasaki, Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17000

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Therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule GS-5734 against Ebola virus in rhesus monkeys p.381

The discovery is reported of a small molecule drug, GS-5734, which has antiviral activity against Ebola virus and other filoviruses, and is capable of providing post-exposure therapeutic protection against lethal disease in 100% of drug-treated nonhuman primates infected with Ebola virus; the drug targets viral RNA polymerase and can distribute to sanctuary sites (such as testes, eyes and brain), suggesting that it may be able to clear persistent virus infection.

Travis K. Warren, Robert Jordan, Michael K. Lo, Adrian S. Ray, Richard L. Mackman, Veronica Soloveva, Dustin Siegel, Michel Perron, Roy Bannister, Hon C. Hui + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17180

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Hepatitis B virus X protein identifies the Smc5/6 complex as a host restriction factor p.386

Hepatitis B virus X protein stimulates transcription from the viral DNA episome by hijacking the host ubiquitin machinery to target the Smc5/6 complex for degradation.

Adrien Decorsière, Henrik Mueller, Pieter C. van Breugel, Fabien Abdul, Laetitia Gerossier, Rudolf K. Beran, Christine M. Livingston, Congrong Niu, Simon P. Fletcher, Olivier Hantz + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17170

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Sequence-dependent but not sequence-specific piRNA adhesion traps mRNAs to the germ plasm p.390

Maternal mRNAs are tethered within the Drosophila germ plasm via base-pairing interactions between mRNAs and piRNPs containing the Aub Piwi protein; the preference for certain mRNAs to be tethered appears to be related to their longer length, which provides more potential piRNP-binding sites, and the results suggest a new role for piRNAs in germ-cell specification independent of their role in transposon silencing.

Anastassios Vourekas, Panagiotis Alexiou, Nicholas Vrettos, Manolis Maragkakis & Zissimos Mourelatos

doi: 10.1038/nature17150

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