네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Generation game p.381

A Nature special issue takes on the world of tomorrow — and the decisions shaping it today.

doi: 10.1038/530381b

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Safety first p.381

t is worrying that US government departments are unable to divulge basic data on research projects involving human subjects. Such data should be publicly available to ensure volunteers’ safety.

doi: 10.1038/530381a

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Climate changes p.382

The loss of three key facilitators must not impede progress on emissions mitigation.

doi: 10.1038/530382a

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News

News Features

Future generations p.397

A special issue examines whether researchers today consider the world of tomorrow — and why they should.

doi: 10.1038/530397a

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News & Views

Antigen-specific immunotherapy p.422

Nanoparticles coated with fragments of the body's own proteins are shown to induce T cells of the immune system to adopt regulatory functions that suppress autoimmune reactions involving these self-antigens. See Article p.434

David Wraith

doi: 10.1038/nature17300

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A new methyl mark on messengers p.423

The presence of an N1 methyl group on adenine bases in DNA and RNA was thought to be a form of damage. Results now show that it also occurs at specific sites in messenger RNAs, where it affects protein expression. See Article p.441

Anna M. Kietrys & Eric T. Kool

doi: 10.1038/530423a

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What teeth tell us p.425

Models based on developmental mechanisms described in mice and shared by most mammals are shown to accurately predict tooth size in extinct hominins, and can explain the small third molars in our species. See Letter p.477

Aida Gómez-Robles

doi: 10.1038/530425a

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Hidden trends in the ocean carbon sink p.426

Simulations of the flux of atmospheric carbon dioxide into the ocean show that changes in flux associated with human activities are currently masked by natural climate variations, but will be evident in the near future. See Letter p.469

Tatiana Ilyina

doi: 10.1038/530426a

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Home of a fast radio burst p.427

Our understanding of fast radio bursts — intense pulses of radio waves — and their use as cosmic probes promises to be transformed now that one burst has been associated with a galaxy of known distance from Earth. See Letter p.453

Duncan Lorimer

doi: 10.1038/530427a

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Articles

Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals p.429

It is known that there was gene flow from Neanderthals to modern humans around 50,000 years ago; now, analysis of a Neanderthal genome from the Altai Mountains in Siberia reveals evidence of gene flow 100,000 years ago in the other direction—from early modern humans to Neanderthals.

Martin Kuhlwilm, Ilan Gronau, Melissa J. Hubisz, Cesare de Filippo, Javier Prado-Martinez, Martin Kircher, Qiaomei Fu, Hernán A. Burbano, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Marco de la Rasilla + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16544

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Expanding antigen-specific regulatory networks to treat autoimmunity p.434

Nanoparticles coated with autoantigenic peptides bound to MHC class II molecules suppress established autoimmune disease by inducing antigen-specific TR1-like regulatory T cells in mouse and humanized mouse models.

Xavier Clemente-Casares, Jesus Blanco, Poornima Ambalavanan, Jun Yamanouchi, Santiswarup Singha, Cesar Fandos, Sue Tsai, Jinguo Wang, Nahir Garabatos, Cristina Izquierdo + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16962

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The dynamic N1-methyladenosine methylome in eukaryotic messenger RNA p.441

Here the m1A modification is discovered in messenger RNA and mapped at the transcriptome-wide level; the modification is conserved, dynamic, accumulates in structured regions around translation initiation sites upstream of the first splice site, and correlates with higher protein expression.

Dan Dominissini, Sigrid Nachtergaele, Sharon Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Eyal Peer, Nitzan Kol, Moshe Shay Ben-Haim, Qing Dai, Ayelet Di Segni, Mali Salmon-Divon, Wesley C. Clark + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16998

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Structural basis for activity regulation of MLL family methyltransferases p.447

Crystal structures of the SET domains of MLL3 and a mutant MLL1 either unbound or complexed with domains from RBBP5 and ASH2L are determined; a combination of structural, biochemical and computational analyses reveals a two-step activation mechanism of MLL family proteins, which may be relevant for other histone methyltransferases.

Yanjing Li, Jianming Han, Yuebin Zhang, Fang Cao, Zhijun Liu, Shuai Li, Jian Wu, Chunyi Hu, Yan Wang, Jin Shuai + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16952

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Letters

The host galaxy of a fast radio burst p.453

Observations of a six-day-long radio transient following a fast radio burst have yielded the host galaxy’s redshift, which, combined with the dispersion measure, provides a direct measurement of the cosmic density of ionized baryons in the intergalactic medium including all of the so-called ‘missing baryons’.

E. F. Keane, S. Johnston, S. Bhandari, E. Barr, N. D. R. Bhat, M. Burgay, M. Caleb, C. Flynn, A. Jameson, M. Kramer + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature17140

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Non-destructive state detection for quantum logic spectroscopy of molecular ions p.457

Detecting the quantum states of molecules is harder than detecting those of atoms; here, a way around this problem is found by co-trapping a molecular and an atomic ion, using the state of the atomic ion to non-destructively determine that of the molecular ion.

Fabian Wolf, Yong Wan, Jan C. Heip, Florian Gebert, Chunyan Shi & Piet O. Schmidt

doi: 10.1038/nature16513

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Possible light-induced superconductivity in K3C60 at high temperature p.461

By exciting high-temperature K3C60 with mid-infrared pulses, a large increase in carrier mobility is obtained, accompanied by the opening of a gap in the optical conductivity; these same signatures are observed at equilibrium when cooling K3C60 below the superconducting transition temperature of 20 kelvin, which could be an indication of light-induced high-temperature superconductivity.

M. Mitrano, A. Cantaluppi, D. Nicoletti, S. Kaiser, A. Perucchi, S. Lupi, P. Di Pietro, D. Pontiroli, M. Riccò, S. R. Clark + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16522

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A pentanuclear iron catalyst designed for water oxidation p.465

A complex containing five atoms of iron is shown to be a highly efficient and robust water oxidation catalyst owing to the presence of redox flexibility, which enables charge accumulation and electron transfer, and the presence of adjacent active sites that enables intramolecular O–O bond formation.

Masaya Okamura, Mio Kondo, Reiko Kuga, Yuki Kurashige, Takeshi Yanai, Shinya Hayami, Vijayendran K. K. Praneeth, Masaki Yoshida, Ko Yoneda, Satoshi Kawata + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16529

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Timescales for detection of trends in the ocean carbon sink p.469

A climate modelling experiment is used to identify where ocean carbon uptake should change as a result of anthropogenic climate change and to distinguish these changes from internal climate variability; we may be able to detect changing uptake in some oceanic regions between 2020 and 2050, but until then, internal climate variability will preclude such detection.

Galen A. McKinley, Darren J. Pilcher, Amanda R. Fay, Keith Lindsay, Matthew C. Long & Nicole S. Lovenduski

doi: 10.1038/nature16958

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Third-party punishment as a costly signal of trustworthiness p.473

In human societies, individuals who violate social norms may be punished by third-party observers who have not been harmed by the violator; this study suggests that a reason why the observers are willing to punish is to be seen as more trustworthy by the community.

Jillian J. Jordan, Moshe Hoffman, Paul Bloom & David G. Rand

doi: 10.1038/nature16981

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A simple rule governs the evolution and development of hominin tooth size p.477

The inhibitory cascade, an activator–inhibitor mechanism that affects relative tooth size in mammals, produces the default pattern of tooth sizes for all lower primary postcanine teeth in hominins.

Alistair R. Evans, E. Susanne Daly, Kierstin K. Catlett, Kathleen S. Paul, Stephen J. King, Matthew M. Skinner, Hans P. Nesse, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Grant C. Townsend, Gary T. Schwartz + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16972

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Adult restoration of Shank3 expression rescues selective autistic-like phenotypes p.481

Re-expression of the Shank3 gene in adult mice results in improvements in synaptic protein composition and spine density in the striatum; Shank3 also rescues autism-like features such as social interaction and grooming behaviour, and the results suggest that aspects of autism spectrum disorders may be reversible in adulthood.

Yuan Mei, Patricia Monteiro, Yang Zhou, Jin-Ah Kim, Xian Gao, Zhanyan Fu & Guoping Feng

doi: 10.1038/nature16971

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Inhibiting fungal multidrug resistance by disrupting an activator–Mediator interaction p.485

A small molecule, inhibitor of a protein–protein interaction between the transcription factor Pdr1 and the Med15 subunit of Mediator in the fungal pathogen Candida glabrata, is identified and characterized here; the compound iKIX1 inhibits Pdr1-mediated gene activation and resensitizes drug-resistant C. glabrata to azole antifungals in vitro and in animal models of disseminated and urinary tract infection.

Joy L. Nishikawa, Andras Boeszoermenyi, Luis A. Vale-Silva, Riccardo Torelli, Brunella Posteraro, Yoo-Jin Sohn, Fei Ji, Vladimir Gelev, Dominique Sanglard, Maurizio Sanguinetti + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16963

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Tumour-specific proline vulnerability uncovered by differential ribosome codon reading p.490

Tumours can require certain amino acids for their proliferation, and the diricore method described here helps to identify such restrictive amino acids; using this method in kidney cancer tissue and breast carcinoma cells, the authors observe an association between proline deficiency and upregulation of PYCR1, an enzyme required for proline synthesis.

Fabricio Loayza-Puch, Koos Rooijers, Levi C. M. Buil, Jelle Zijlstra, Joachim F. Oude Vrielink, Rui Lopes, Alejandro Pineiro Ugalde, Pieter van Breugel, Ingrid Hofland, Jelle Wesseling + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16982

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Epithelial tricellular junctions act as interphase cell shape sensors to orient mitosis p.495

As fruitfly epithelial cells round up during mitosis, tricellular junctions serve as spatial landmarks, encoding information about interphase cell shape directionality to orient mitosis, and promoting geometric and mechanical sensing in epithelial tissues.

Floris Bosveld, Olga Markova, Boris Guirao, Charlotte Martin, Zhimin Wang, Anaëlle Pierre, Maria Balakireva, Isabelle Gaugue, Anna Ainslie, Nicolas Christophorou + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16970

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Structural basis for promiscuous PAM recognition in type I–E Cascade from E. coli p.499

The structure of E. coli Cascade bound to foreign target DNA is presented, revealing the basis of the relaxed Cascade PAM recognition specificity, which results from its interaction with the minor groove, and demonstrating how a wedge in Cascade forces the directional pairing of the target strand with CRISPR RNA while stabilizing the non-target displaced strand.

Robert P. Hayes, Yibei Xiao, Fran Ding, Paul B. G. van Erp, Kanagalaghatta Rajashankar, Scott Bailey, Blake Wiedenheft & Ailong Ke

doi: 10.1038/nature16995

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