네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

The next steps on Zika p.5

With birth defects blamed on the virus now deemed a matter of international concern, researchers must work fast to assess the extent of the threat.

doi: 10.1038/530005a

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Green growth p.6

US policymakers must set aside their divisions and give climate research a much-needed boost.

doi: 10.1038/530006a

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Better together p.6

The European Union has its issues, but a Brexit could spell problems for science.

doi: 10.1038/530006b

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News

News Features

News & Views

Photocatalysts in close-up p.36

The water-splitting reaction is a promising route to renewable energy. Catalytic hotspots, and the best sites for co-catalyst placement, have now been pinpointed in a water-splitting catalyst, guiding future catalyst design. See Letter p.77

Johan Hofkens & Maarten B. J. Roeffaers

doi: 10.1038/530036a

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A stretch in time p.37

Plots of survival against time for nematode worms in different conditions can be superimposed by rescaling the time axis. This observation has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the nature of ageing. See Letter p.103

Zachary Pincus

doi: 10.1038/nature16873

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Disorder in the court p.38

The native structure of the protein α-synuclein, which is implicated in Parkinson's disease, is controversial. In-cell nuclear magnetic resonance now shows that it remains disordered when loaded into living cells. See Article p.45

T. Reid Alderson & Ad Bax

doi: 10.1038/nature16871

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Ultrashort light pulses shake atoms p.41

The response of electrons in atoms to ultrashort optical light pulses has been probed by measuring the ultraviolet light emitted by the atoms. This reveals that a finite time delay occurs before the response. See Letter p.66

Kyung Taec Kim

doi: 10.1038/530041a

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Fibroblasts for all seasons p.42

Connective-tissue cells known as fibroblasts display an increasing spectrum of functions. Different fibroblast subtypes are now shown to either promote or suppress inflammation-associated intestinal cancers.

Erwin F. Wagner

doi: 10.1038/530042a

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Articles

Structural disorder of monomeric α-synuclein persists in mammalian cells p.45

Atomic resolution in-cell NMR and EPR spectroscopy show that the human amyloid protein α-synuclein remains disordered within all mammalian cells tested, including neurons, and identifies which parts of the protein dynamically interact or remain shielded from the cytoplasm, thus counteracting aggregation under physiological cell conditions.

Francois-Xavier Theillet, Andres Binolfi, Beata Bekei, Andrea Martorana, Honor May Rose, Marchel Stuiver, Silvia Verzini, Dorothea Lorenz, Marleen van Rossum, Daniella Goldfarb + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16531

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Persistent HIV-1 replication maintains the tissue reservoir during therapy p.51

By examining viral sequences in lymphoid tissue from three HIV-1-infected individuals receiving drug therapy, the authors find phylogenetic evidence for ongoing virus replication, suggesting that the antiretroviral drug concentration in the lymphoid tissue is insufficient to fully suppress the virus; using a mathematical model, they further explain why drug resistance does not necessarily arise as a result.

Ramon Lorenzo-Redondo, Helen R. Fryer, Trevor Bedford, Eun-Young Kim, John Archer, Sergei L. Kosakovsky Pond, Yoon-Seok Chung, Sudhir Penugonda, Jeffrey G. Chipman, Courtney V. Fletcher + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16933

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Active medulloblastoma enhancers reveal subgroup-specific cellular origins p.57

Genomic studies of the paediatric brain tumour medulloblastoma have revealed four clinically distinct molecular subgroups; here active gene regulatory elements in 28 primary medulloblastoma tissues are mapped to reveal differentially regulated enhancers across the different subgroups, allowing insights into the transcription factors that characterize subgroup divergence and the cellular origin of the poorly characterized Group 3 and 4 subgroups.

Charles Y. Lin, Serap Erkek, Yiai Tong, Linlin Yin, Alexander J. Federation, Marc Zapatka, Parthiv Haldipur, Daisuke Kawauchi, Thomas Risch, Hans-Jörg Warnatz + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16546

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Letters

A homogeneous nucleus for comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from its gravity field p.63

The precise mass, bulk density, porosity and internal structure of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko are calculated, on the basis of its gravity field, showing it to be dusty, homogeneous, low-density and highly porous.

M. Pätzold, T. Andert, M. Hahn, S. W. Asmar, J.-P. Barriot, M. K. Bird, B. Häusler, K. Peter, S. Tellmann, E. Grün + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16535

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Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons p.66

Intense light pulses in the visible and adjacent spectral ranges with their energy mostly confined to a half wave cycle—optical attosecond pulses—are synthesized and used to measure the time it takes electrons to respond to light.

M. Th. Hassan, T. T. Luu, A. Moulet, O. Raskazovskaya, P. Zhokhov, M. Garg, N. Karpowicz, A. M. Zheltikov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16528

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Bioresorbable silicon electronic sensors for the brain p.71

Electronic implants are often used in diagnosing and treating human illness, but permanent implants come with problems; here, devices are described that can sense temperature, pressure, pH or thermal characteristics, and—crucially—are fully resorbable by the body.

Seung-Kyun Kang, Rory K. J. Murphy, Suk-Won Hwang, Seung Min Lee, Daniel V. Harburg, Neil A. Krueger, Jiho Shin, Paul Gamble, Huanyu Cheng, Sooyoun Yu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16492

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Sub-particle reaction and photocurrent mapping to optimize catalyst-modified photoanodes p.77

Using single-molecule fluorescence imaging of photoelectrocatalysis, the charge-carrier activities on single TiO2 nanorods and the corresponding water-oxidation photocurrent are mapped at high spatiotemporal resolution, revealing the best catalytic sites and the most effective sites for depositing an oxygen evolution catalyst.

Justin B. Sambur, Tai-Yen Chen, Eric Choudhary, Guanqun Chen, Erin J. Nissen, Elayne M. Thomas, Ningmu Zou & Peng Chen

doi: 10.1038/nature16534

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Dehydration of lawsonite could directly trigger earthquakes in subducting oceanic crust p.81

Deformation experiments on lawsonite reveal that unstable fault slip occurs during dehydration reactions with continuous acoustic emission signals; this indicates the potential for unstable frictional sliding in natural lawsonite layers, which could possibly be the source of intermediate-depth earthquakes in cold subduction zones.

Keishi Okazaki & Greg Hirth

doi: 10.1038/nature16501

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Historical nectar assessment reveals the fall and rise of floral resources in Britain p.85

Historical assessment of nectar provision in the UK from the 1930s to 2007 shows an initial dramatic fall, but more recently nectar provision has increased; the diversity of nectar sources has fallen to the point that four species now produce half of the total UK nectar.

Mathilde Baude, William E. Kunin, Nigel D. Boatman, Simon Conyers, Nancy Davies, Mark A. K. Gillespie, R. Daniel Morton, Simon M. Smart & Jane Memmott

doi: 10.1038/nature16532

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Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa p.89

Robust phylogenetic analysis based on transcriptomes of Xenoturbella and acoelomorph worms shows that Xenacoelomorpha is an early bilaterian lineage forming the sister group to Nephrozoa.

Johanna Taylor Cannon, Bruno Cossermelli Vellutini, Julian Smith, Fredrik Ronquist, Ulf Jondelius & Andreas Hejnol

doi: 10.1038/nature16520

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Autism-like behaviours and germline transmission in transgenic monkeys overexpressing MeCP2 p.98

Lentivirus-based transgenic Macaca fascicularis monkeys are generated expressing the human MECP2 transgene in the brain, and they display behavioural alterations including changes in social interaction and increased anxiety; germline transmission of the transgene to the F1 offspring is shown, and these monkeys also had an altered social interaction phenotype.

Zhen Liu, Xiao Li, Jun-Tao Zhang, Yi-Jun Cai, Tian-Lin Cheng, Cheng Cheng, Yan Wang, Chen-Chen Zhang, Yan-Hong Nie, Zhi-Fang Chen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16533

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The temporal scaling of Caenorhabditis elegans ageing p.103

A diverse range of molecular and genetic manipulations all alter lifespan distributions of Caenorhabditis elegans by an apparent stretching or shrinking of time.

Nicholas Stroustrup, Winston E. Anthony, Zachary M. Nash, Vivek Gowda, Adam Gomez, Isaac F. López-Moyado, Javier Apfeld & Walter Fontana

doi: 10.1038/nature16550

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An essential receptor for adeno-associated virus infection p.108

An adeno-associated virus (AAV) receptor protein essential for AAV2 entry into cells is identified; AAV receptor binds directly to the virus, and its ablation renders a diverse range of mammalian cell types and mice resistant to infection by AAV of multiple serotypes.

S. Pillay, N. L. Meyer, A. S. Puschnik, O. Davulcu, J. Diep, Y. Ishikawa, L. T. Jae, J. E. Wosen, C. M. Nagamine, M. S. Chapman + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16465

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Genome-wide nucleosome specificity and function of chromatin remodellers in ES cells p.113

Genome-wide binding profiles for eight different chromatin remodellers in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are determined at single nucleosome resolution; each remodeller binds at specific nucleosome positions relative to the start of genes, and the same remodeller acts as a positive or negative regulator of transcription depending on the promoter chromatin organization and epigenetic marking of the gene it binds.

Maud de Dieuleveult, Kuangyu Yen, Isabelle Hmitou, Arnaud Depaux, Fayçal Boussouar, Daria Bou Dargham, Sylvie Jounier, Hélène Humbertclaude, Florence Ribierre, Céline Baulard + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16505

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