네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Blue future p.255

Coastal wetlands can have a crucial role in the fight against climate change.

doi: 10.1038/529255b

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Harassment victims deserve better p.255

Sexual harassment is rife in science. Universities must stop trying to save face: they must discipline perpetrators and support victims.

doi: 10.1038/529255a

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Repetitive flaws p.256

Strict guidelines to improve the reproducibility of experiments are a welcome move.

doi: 10.1038/529256a

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News

News Features

When chickens go wild p.270

The feral chickens of Kauai provide a unique opportunity to study what happens when domesticated animals escape and evolve.

Ewen Callaway

doi: 10.1038/529270a

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Ecology’s $434,000,000 test p.274

The United States has invested in a grand ecological observatory, but the project has been dogged by budget overruns and delays.

Chris Cesare

doi: 10.1038/529274a

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News & Views

A sisterly dispute p.286

Which phylum first branched off from the animal phylogenetic tree is a contested issue. A new analysis challenges the proposal that comb jellies are the sister group to all other animals, and emphasizes a 'sponges-first' view. Three evolutionary biologists weigh up the evidence.

Maximilian J. Telford, Leonid L. Moroz & Kenneth M. Halanych

doi: 10.1038/529286a

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Another energy source for the geodynamo p.288

Magnesium is not usually considered to be a constituent of Earth's core, but its presence there has now been proposed to explain an ongoing enigma — the identity of the energy sources that drive our planet's magnetic field. See Letter p.387

Bruce Buffett

doi: 10.1038/529288a

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Bet on drug resistance p.289

Inhibitors of the BET bromodomain proteins are promising cancer therapeutics, but tumour cells are likely to become resistant to these drugs. Anticipated mechanisms of resistance have now been described. See Letter p.413

Jeff Settleman

doi: 10.1038/nature16863

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A global picture of melioidosis p.290

Comprehensive mapping and modelling have estimated global deaths from the bacterial disease melioidosis to be comparable to deaths from measles and substantially greater than those from dengue or leptospirosis.

Bart J. Currie & Mirjam Kaestli

doi: 10.1038/529290a

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Lipid code for membrane recycling p.292

The sequential action of enzymes has been shown to modify members of a class of membrane lipid called phosphoinositides to direct integral membrane proteins for recycling. See Letter p.408

Tamas Balla

doi: 10.1038/nature16868

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Biodiversity and productivity entwined p.293

A systems-level analysis of grasslands across the planet provides stimulating insight into the interlaced pathways that connect species diversity and biological productivity in ecological communities. See Letter p.390

Kevin Gross

doi: 10.1038/nature16867

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Antimatter may matter p.294

The charge neutrality of the antimatter atom antihydrogen has been confirmed with unprecedented accuracy, paving the way for experiments that could simultaneously solve several of physics' biggest mysteries. See Letter p.373

Thomas J. Phillips

doi: 10.1038/529294a

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Articles

The functional diversity of retinal ganglion cells in the mouse p.345

Two-photon calcium imaging reveals that the mouse retina contains more than 30 functionally distinct retinal ganglion cells, including some that have not been described before, exceeding current estimates and suggesting that the functional diversity of retinal ganglion cells may be much larger than previously thought.

Tom Baden, Philipp Berens, Katrin Franke, Miroslav Román Rosón, Matthias Bethge & Thomas Euler

doi: 10.1038/nature16468

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Divergent clonal selection dominates medulloblastoma at recurrence p.351

To address the question of whether a recurrent tumour is genetically similar to the tumour at diagnosis, the evolution of medulloblastoma has been studied in both an in vivo mouse model of clinical tumour therapy as well as in humans with recurrent disease; targeted tumour therapies are usually based on targets present in the tumour at diagnosis but the results from this study indicate that post-treatment recurring tumours (compared with the tumour at diagnosis) have undergone substantial clonal divergence of the initial dominant tumour clone.

A. Sorana Morrissy, Livia Garzia, David J. H. Shih, Scott Zuyderduyn, Xi Huang, Patryk Skowron, Marc Remke, Florence M. G. Cavalli, Vijay Ramaswamy, Patricia E. Lindsay + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16478

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Codon influence on protein expression in E. coli correlates with mRNA levels p.358

In-depth analyses of protein expression studies are used to derive a new codon-influence metric that correlates with global protein levels, mRNA levels and mRNA lifetimes in vivo, indicating tight coupling between translation efficiency and mRNA stability; genes redesigned based on these analyses consistently yield high protein expression levels both in vivo and in vitro.

Grégory Boël, Reka Letso, Helen Neely, W. Nicholson Price, Kam-Ho Wong, Min Su, Jon D. Luff, Mayank Valecha, John K. Everett, Thomas B. Acton + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16509

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Letters

Exposed water ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko p.368

Using infrared wavelengths, micrometre-sized water-ice grains have been identified on the nucleus (which is mostly coated in a dark material) of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.

G. Filacchione, M. C. De Sanctis, F. Capaccioni, A. Raponi, F. Tosi, M. Ciarniello, P. Cerroni, G. Piccioni, M. T. Capria, E. Palomba + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16190

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An improved limit on the charge of antihydrogen from stochastic acceleration p.373

Stochastic acceleration applied to 1,000 trapped antihydrogen atoms yields a 20-fold reduction of the experimental upper bound on the magnitude of the charge of antihydrogen, which is expected to be charge neutral.

M. Ahmadi, M. Baquero-Ruiz, W. Bertsche, E. Butler, A. Capra, C. Carruth, C. L. Cesar, M. Charlton, A. E. Charman, S. Eriksson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16491

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A lithium–oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide p.377

Lithium–oxygen batteries allow oxygen to be reduced at the battery’s cathode when a current is drawn; in present-day batteries, this results in formation of Li2O2, but it is now shown that another high energy density material, namely LiO2, with better electronic conduction can be used instead as the discharge product, if the electrode is decorated with iridium nanoparticles.

Jun Lu, Yun Jung Lee, Xiangyi Luo, Kah Chun Lau, Mohammad Asadi, Hsien-Hau Wang, Scott Brombosz, Jianguo Wen, Dengyun Zhai, Zonghai Chen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16484

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Powering Earth’s dynamo with magnesium precipitation from the core p.387

The thermal conductivity of iron is now known to be much larger than had been thought, implying that thermal convection and radiogenic heating would not have been enough to sustain the Earth’s geodynamo; here it is shown that the precipitation of magnesium-bearing minerals from the core could have served as the required power source.

Joseph G. O’Rourke & David J. Stevenson

doi: 10.1038/nature16495

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Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness p.390

Data from grasslands across five continents show clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking ecosystem productivity and species richness.

James B. Grace, T. Michael Anderson, Eric W. Seabloom, Elizabeth T. Borer, Peter B. Adler, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Helmut Hillebrand, Eric M. Lind, Meelis Pärtel + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16524

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Inter-group violence among early Holocene hunter-gatherers of West Turkana, Kenya p.394

A case of inter-group violence among hunter-gatherers on the shores of Lake Turkana in Kenya 10,000 years ago.

M. Mirazón Lahr, F. Rivera, R. K. Power, A. Mounier, B. Copsey, F. Crivellaro, J. E. Edung, J. M. Maillo Fernandez, C. Kiarie, J. Lawrence + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16477

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Motor neurons control locomotor circuit function retrogradely via gap junctions p.399

Motor neurons in zebrafish are shown to be more than simply output neurons, since they are able to influence, through gap junctions, the strength of the input they receive from V2a interneurons and, thereby, the frequency and duration of locomotor activity.

Jianren Song, Konstantinos Ampatzis, E. Rebecka Björnfors & Abdeljabbar El Manira

doi: 10.1038/nature16497

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NANOG alone induces germ cells in primed epiblast in vitro by activation of enhancers p.403

In mouse embryonic stem cells converted to an epiblast fate in vitro—a state in which the cells can also gain germ cell fate if exposed to the signalling molecule BMP4—the sole expression of the transcription factor NANOG is shown to be sufficient to induce germ cell fate, in the absence of BMP4.

Kazuhiro Murakami, Ufuk Günesdogan, Jan J. Zylicz, Walfred W. C. Tang, Roopsha Sengupta, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Shinseog Kim, Richard Butler, Sabine Dietmann & M. Azim Surani

doi: 10.1038/nature16480

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A phosphoinositide conversion mechanism for exit from endosomes p.408

A mechanism for phosphoinositide conversion at endosomes to enable exit from the endosomal system, suggesting that defective phosphoinositide conversion at endosomes underlies X-linked centronuclear myopathy.

Katharina Ketel, Michael Krauss, Anne-Sophie Nicot, Dmytro Puchkov, Marnix Wieffer, Rainer Müller, Devaraj Subramanian, Carsten Schultz, Jocelyn Laporte & Volker Haucke

doi: 10.1038/nature16516

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Response and resistance to BET bromodomain inhibitors in triple-negative breast cancer p.413

BET inhibitors that target bromodomain chromatin readers such as BRD4 are being explored as potential therapeutics in cancer; here triple-negative breast cancer cell lines are shown to respond to BET inhibitors and resistance seems to be associated with transcriptional changes rather than drug efflux and mutations, opening potential avenues to improve clinical responses to BET inhibitors.

Shaokun Shu, Charles Y. Lin, Housheng Hansen He, Robert M. Witwicki, Doris P. Tabassum, Justin M. Roberts, Michalina Janiszewska, Sung Jin Huh, Yi Liang, Jeremy Ryan + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16508

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Super-resolution imaging reveals distinct chromatin folding for different epigenetic states p.418

Using super-resolution imaging to directly observe the three-dimensional organization of Drosophila chromatin at a scale spanning sizes from individual genes to entire gene regulatory domains, the authors find that transcriptionally active, inactive and Polycomb-repressed chromatin states each have a distinct spatial organisation.

Alistair N. Boettiger, Bogdan Bintu, Jeffrey R. Moffitt, Siyuan Wang, Brian J. Beliveau, Geoffrey Fudenberg, Maxim Imakaev, Leonid A. Mirny, Chao-ting Wu & Xiaowei Zhuang

doi: 10.1038/nature16496

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