네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

A secure future p.127

Research advances mean that the time is ripe to ratify the ban on testing nuclear weapons.

doi: 10.1038/529127b

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Solving the drink problem p.127

The United Kingdom's new guidelines on alcohol consumption are a sound example of evidence-based policymaking.

doi: 10.1038/529127a

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News

News Features

Trouble in Tibet p.142

Rapid changes in Tibetan grasslands are threatening Asia's main water supply and the livelihood of nomads.

Jane Qiu

doi: 10.1038/529142a

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Why boredom is anything but boring p.146

Implicated in everything from traumatic brain injury to learning ability, boredom has become extremely interesting to scientists.

Maggie Koerth-Baker

doi: 10.1038/529146a

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News & Views

Fibre for the future p.158

A chronic lack of dietary fibre has been found to reduce the diversity of bacteria in the guts of mice. This effect is not fully reversed when fibre is reintroduced, and increases in severity over multiple generations. See Letter p.212

Eric C. Martens

doi: 10.1038/529158a

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Photons from dwarf galaxy zap hydrogen p.159

The detection of photons sufficiently energetic to ionize neutral hydrogen, coming from a compact, star-forming galaxy, offers clues to how the first generation of galaxies may have reionized hydrogen gas in the early Universe. See Letter p.178

Dawn K. Erb

doi: 10.1038/529159a

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Transcriptional control of endothelial energy p.160

The formation of blood vessels requires rapid proliferation of endothelial cells. The transcription factors FOXO1 and MYC have been found to regulate the metabolism and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. See Letter p.216

Christer Betsholtz

doi: 10.1038/nature16866

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Earth's narrow escape from a big freeze p.162

An equation has been derived that allows the timing of the onset of glaciations to be predicted. This confirms that Earth has just missed entering a new glacial period, and is unlikely to enter one for another 50,000 years. See Letter p.200

Michel Crucifix

doi: 10.1038/529162a

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A trail map for trait-based studies p.163

Global assessments of variation in plant functional traits and the way that these traits influence competitive interactions provide a launching pad for future ecological studies. See Article p.167 & Letter p.204

Jonathan M. Levine

doi: 10.1038/nature16862

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Pull out the stops for plasticity p.164

The strength of synaptic connections between neurons needs to be variable, but not too much so. Evidence now indicates that regulation of such synaptic plasticity involves a complex cascade of feedback loops.

Christine E. Gee & Thomas G. Oertner

doi: 10.1038/529164a

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Articles

The global spectrum of plant form and function p.167

The authors found that the key elements of plant form and function, analysed at global scale, are largely concentrated into a two-dimensional plane indexed by the size of whole plants and organs on the one hand, and the construction costs for photosynthetic leaf area, on the other.

Sandra Díaz, Jens Kattge, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen, Ian J. Wright, Sandra Lavorel, Stéphane Dray, Björn Reu, Michael Kleyer, Christian Wirth, I. Colin Prentice + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16489

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An ID2-dependent mechanism for VHL inactivation in cancer p.172

HIFα transcription factors are highly expressed in cancer stem cells from glioma; DYRK1 kinases inhibit the protein ID2 to modulate the level of HIF2α and the tumorigenic properties of glioblastoma-associated cancer stem cells.

Sang Bae Lee, Veronique Frattini, Mukesh Bansal, Angelica M. Castano, Dan Sherman, Keino Hutchinson, Jeffrey N. Bruce, Andrea Califano, Guangchao Liu, Timothy Cardozo + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16475

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Letters

Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy p.178

Far-ultraviolet observations of the nearby low-mass star-forming galaxy J0925+1403 show that the galaxy is leaking ionizing radiation with an escape fraction of about 8 per cent, which is sufficient to ionize intergalactic medium material that is about 40 times as massive as the stellar mass of the galaxy.

Y. I. Izotov, I. Orlitová, D. Schaerer, T. X. Thuan, A. Verhamme, N. G. Guseva & G. Worseck

doi: 10.1038/nature16456

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Controlling many-body states by the electric-field effect in a two-dimensional material p.185

To be able to control the properties of a system that has strong electron–electron interactions using only an external electric field would be ideal, but the material must be thin enough to avoid shielding of the electric field in the bulk material; here pure electric-field control of the charge-density wave and superconductivity transition temperatures is achieved by electrolyte gating through an electric-field double layer transistor in the two-dimensional material 1T-TiSe2.

L. J. Li, E. C. T. O’Farrell, K. P. Loh, G. Eda, B. Özyilmaz & A. H. Castro Neto

doi: 10.1038/nature16175

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Rapid removal of organic micropollutants from water by a porous β-cyclodextrin polymer p.190

The global occurrence in water resources of organic micropollutants, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, has raised concerns about potential negative effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Activated carbons are the most widespread adsorbent materials used to remove organic pollutants from water but they have several deficiencies, including slow pollutant uptake (of the order of hours) and poor removal of many relatively hydrophilic micropollutants. Furthermore, regenerating spent activated carbon is energy intensive (requiring heating to 500–900 degrees Celsius) and does not fully restore performance. Insoluble polymers of β-cyclodextrin, an inexpensive, sustainably produced macrocycle of glucose, are likewise of interest for removing micropollutants from water by means of adsorption. β-cyclodextrin is known to encapsulate pollutants to form well-defined host–guest complexes, but until now cross-linked β-cyclodextrin polymers have had low surface areas and poor removal performance compared to conventional activated carbons. Here we crosslink β-cyclodextrin with rigid aromatic groups, providing a high-surface-area, mesoporous polymer of β-cyclodextrin. It rapidly sequesters a variety of organic micropollutants with adsorption rate constants 15 to 200 times greater than those of activated carbons and non-porous β-cyclodextrin adsorbent materials. In addition, the polymer can be regenerated several times using a mild washing procedure with no loss in performance. Finally, the polymer outperformed a leading activated carbon for the rapid removal of a complex mixture of organic micropollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations. These findings demonstrate the promise of porous cyclodextrin-based polymers for rapid, flow-through water treatment.

Alaaeddin Alsbaiee, Brian J. Smith, Leilei Xiao, Yuhan Ling, Damian E. Helbling & William R. Dichtel

doi: 10.1038/nature16185

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Iron-catalysed tritiation of pharmaceuticals p.195

An iron-catalysed method for the direct 3H labelling of pharmaceuticals by hydrogen isotope exchange using tritium gas is reported; the site selectivity of the iron catalyst is orthogonal to currently used iridium catalysts and allows isotopic labelling of complementary positions in drug molecules.

Renyuan Pony Yu, David Hesk, Nelo Rivera, István Pelczer & Paul J. Chirik

doi: 10.1038/nature16464

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Critical insolation–CO2 relation for diagnosing past and future glacial inception p.200

A critical functional relationship between boreal summer insolation and global carbon dioxide concentration is proposed and tested with simulations; it accounts for the beginning of the past eight glacial cycles and predicts that the next one is unusually far off, even without the effect of anthropogenic emissions.

A. Ganopolski, R. Winkelmann & H. J. Schellnhuber

doi: 10.1038/nature16494

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Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition p.204

Data from millions of trees in thousands of locations are used to show that certain key traits affect competitive ability in predictable ways, and that there are trade-offs between traits that favour growth with and without competition.

Georges Kunstler, Daniel Falster, David A. Coomes, Francis Hui, Robert M. Kooyman, Daniel C. Laughlin, Lourens Poorter, Mark Vanderwel, Ghislain Vieilledent, S. Joseph Wright + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16476

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Earliest hominin occupation of Sulawesi, Indonesia p.208

New excavations in Sulawesi, where in situ stone artefacts associated with fossil remains of megafauna have been recovered from stratified deposits between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, suggest that Sulawesi was host to a long-established population of archaic hominins.

Gerrit D. van den Bergh, Bo Li, Adam Brumm, Rainer Grün, Dida Yurnaldi, Mark W. Moore, Iwan Kurniawan, Ruly Setiawan, Fachroel Aziz & Richard G. Roberts

doi: 10.1038/nature16448

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Diet-induced extinctions in the gut microbiota compound over generations p.212

In mice on a low microbiota-accessible carbohydrate (MAC) diet, the diversity of the gut microbiota is depleted, and the effect is transferred and compounded over generations; this phenotype is only reversed after supplementation of the missing taxa via faecal microbiota transplantation, suggesting dietary intervention alone may by insufficient at managing diseases characterized by a dysbiotic microbiota.

Erica D. Sonnenburg, Samuel A. Smits, Mikhail Tikhonov, Steven K. Higginbottom, Ned S. Wingreen & Justin L. Sonnenburg

doi: 10.1038/nature16504

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Intestinal epithelial tuft cells initiate type 2 mucosal immunity to helminth parasites p.226

Epithelial tuft cells secretion of IL-25 is shown to regulate type 2 epithelial responses to helminth parasite infection via an IL-13/IL-4Rα-dependent feedback loop.

François Gerbe, Emmanuelle Sidot, Danielle J. Smyth, Makoto Ohmoto, Ichiro Matsumoto, Valérie Dardalhon, Pierre Cesses, Laure Garnier, Marie Pouzolles, Bénédicte Brulin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16527

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Crystal structure of a DNA catalyst p.231

Both DNA and RNA molecules have been shown to exhibit catalytic activity, but only the structure of catalytic RNAs has previously been determined; here the structure of an RNA-ligating DNA in the post-catalytic state is solved.

Almudena Ponce-Salvatierra, Katarzyna Wawrzyniak-Turek, Ulrich Steuerwald, Claudia Höbartner & Vladimir Pena

doi: 10.1038/nature16471

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Structures of two distinct conformations of holo-non-ribosomal peptide synthetases p.235

X-ray crystal structures of two distinct steps in the catalytic cycle of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases are described, offering the potential to generate novel products through engineering enzyme activity.

Eric J. Drake, Bradley R. Miller, Ce Shi, Jeffrey T. Tarrasch, Jesse A. Sundlov, C. Leigh Allen, Georgios Skiniotis, Courtney C. Aldrich & Andrew M. Gulick

doi: 10.1038/nature16163

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