네이처 컨텐츠

Editorial

Come together p.5

Cross-continent collaboration in the sciences has become the norm. We must ensure that disadvantaged regions are not left out

doi: 10.1038/529005a

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News

News Features

The physics of life p.16

From flocking birds to swarming molecules, physicists are seeking to understand 'active matter' — and looking for a fundamental theory of the living world.

Gabriel Popkin

doi: 10.1038/529016a

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News & Views

Why black holes pulse brightly p.28

Black holes can produce oscillating outbursts of radiation that were thought to be associated with high rates of infalling matter. The observation of pulses of visible light from a black hole complicates this picture. See Letter p.54

Poshak Gandhi

doi: 10.1038/529028a

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Different worlds p.29

Patterns of species association reveal that terrestrial plant and animal communities today are structured differently from communities spanning the 300 million years that preceded large-scale human activity. See Letter p.80

Gregory P. Dietl

doi: 10.1038/nature16329

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Host protein clips bird flu's wings in mammals p.30

The polymerase enzyme from avian influenza A viruses does not function well in human cells. The protein ANP32A has been identified as the cellular factor mediating a major component of this host restriction. See Letter p.101

Anice C. Lowen

doi: 10.1038/529030a

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Sources of Chaco wood p.31

Tree rings can pinpoint the source of wood as well as how old it is. This method has now been used to identify the sources of timber used by the Native Americans who constructed the pre-Columbian 'great houses' of Chaco Canyon.

Jared Diamond

doi: 10.1038/nature16864

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Rare isotopic insight into the Universe p.33

Light isotopes of hydrogen and helium formed minutes after the Big Bang. The study of one of these primordial isotopes, helium-3, has now been proposed as a useful strategy for constraining the physics of the standard cosmological model.

Nikos Prantzos

doi: 10.1038/nature16326

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Oncogene brought into the loop p.34

Analysis of the 3D structure of DNA in tumour cells reveals how mutations in the IDH1 gene, and associated changes in methyl groups attached to DNA, elevate the expression of cancer-promoting genes. See Letter p.110

Matthew R. Grimmer & Joseph F. Costello

doi: 10.1038/nature16330

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Articles

Autophagy maintains stemness by preventing senescence p.37

The regenerative properties of muscle stem cells decline with age as the stem cells enter an irreversible state of senescence; a study of mouse muscle stem cells reveals that entry into senescence is an autophagy-dependent process and promoting autophagy in old satellite cells can reverse senescence and restore their regenerative properties in an injury model.

Laura García-Prat, Marta Martínez-Vicente, Eusebio Perdiguero, Laura Ortet, Javier Rodríguez-Ubreva, Elena Rebollo, Vanessa Ruiz-Bonilla, Susana Gutarra, Esteban Ballestar, Antonio L. Serrano + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16187

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Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development p.43

Recent analyses have suggested that the intrinsic behaviour of tissue stem cells may be responsible for malignant transformation and cancer progression, raising questions regarding the influence of extrinsic factors on tumorigenesis; here, both data-driven and model-driven evidence show that such intrinsic risk factors contribute only marginally to cancer development, indicating that cancer risk is heavily influenced by extrinsic factors.

Song Wu, Scott Powers, Wei Zhu & Yusuf A. Hannun

doi: 10.1038/nature16166

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SMN and symmetric arginine dimethylation of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain control termination p.48

Symmetric dimethylation of the human RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain residue R1810 by the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) directly recruits the protein survival of motor neuron (SMN) and indirectly recruits the helicase senataxin to resolve R-loops and promote transcription termination.

Dorothy Yanling Zhao, Gerald Gish, Ulrich Braunschweig, Yue Li, Zuyao Ni, Frank W. Schmitges, Guoqing Zhong, Ke Liu, Weiguo Li, Jason Moffat + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16469

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Letters

Repetitive patterns in rapid optical variations in the nearby black-hole binary V404 Cygni p.54

Observations of V404 Cygni, an X-ray transient containing a black hole of nine solar masses and a companion star, show that optical oscillations on timescales of 100 seconds to 2.5 hours can occur at mass-accretion rates at least ten times lower than previously thought, suggesting that the accretion rate is not the critical parameter for inducing inner-disk instabilities.

Mariko Kimura, Keisuke Isogai, Taichi Kato, Yoshihiro Ueda, Satoshi Nakahira, Megumi Shidatsu, Teruaki Enoto, Takafumi Hori, Daisaku Nogami, Colin Littlefield + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16452

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A continuum from clear to cloudy hot-Jupiter exoplanets without primordial water depletion p.59

A spectroscopic comparison of ten hot-Jupiter exoplanets reveals that the difference between the planetary radius measured at optical and infrared wavelengths allows atmosphere types ranging from clear to cloudy to be distinguished; the difference in radius at a given wavelength correlates with the spectral strength of water at that wavelength, suggesting that haze obscures the signal from water.

David K. Sing, Jonathan J. Fortney, Nikolay Nikolov, Hannah R. Wakeford, Tiffany Kataria, Thomas M. Evans, Suzanne Aigrain, Gilda E. Ballester, Adam S. Burrows, Drake Deming + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16068

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Evidence for a new phase of dense hydrogen above 325 gigapascals p.63

Raman spectroscopy of three isotopes of hydrogen under very high compression yields evidence of a new phase of hydrogen—phase V—which could potentially be a precursor to the long-sought non-molecular phase.

Philip Dalladay-Simpson, Ross T. Howie & Eugene Gregoryanz

doi: 10.1038/nature16164

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Partially oxidized atomic cobalt layers for carbon dioxide electroreduction to liquid fuel p.68

Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into useful fuels helps to reduce fossil-fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions, but activating carbon dioxide requires impractically high overpotentials; here a metal atomic layer combined with its native oxide that requires low overpotentials to reduce carbon dioxide is developed, adapted from an existing cobalt-based catalyst.

Shan Gao, Yue Lin, Xingchen Jiao, Yongfu Sun, Qiquan Luo, Wenhua Zhang, Dianqi Li, Jinlong Yang & Yi Xie

doi: 10.1038/nature16455

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Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site p.72

The environmental and geopolitical problems associated with fossil fuels might be alleviated if it were possible to produce synthetic multicarbon fuels efficiently from single-carbon feedstocks; here, a molybdenum compound supported by a terphenyl–diphosphine ligand is used to convert carbon monoxide into a metal-free C2O1 fragment, with the ligand both serving as an electron reservoir and stabilizing the different intermediate species.

Joshua A. Buss & Theodor Agapie

doi: 10.1038/nature16154

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Slab melting as a barrier to deep carbon subduction p.76

Experiments show that carbonated oceanic crust subducting into the mantle will intersect the melting curve at depths of about 300 to 700 kilometres, creating a barrier to direct carbonate recycling into the deep mantle.

Andrew R. Thomson, Michael J. Walter, Simon C. Kohn & Richard A. Brooker

doi: 10.1038/nature16174

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Holocene shifts in the assembly of plant and animal communities implicate human impacts p.80

Plant and animal assemblage co-occurrence patterns have remained relatively consistent for 300 million years but have changed over the Holocene epoch as the impact of humans has dramatically increased.

S. Kathleen Lyons, Kathryn L. Amatangelo, Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Antoine Bercovici, Jessica L. Blois, Matt Davis, William A. DiMichele, Andrew Du, Jussi T. Eronen, J. Tyler Faith + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16447

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Influence of extreme weather disasters on global crop production p.84

Analyses of the effects of extreme weather disasters on global crop production over the past five decades show that drought and extreme heat reduced national cereal production by 9–10%, whereas no discernible effect at the national level was seen for floods and extreme cold; droughts affect yields and the harvested area, whereas extreme heat mainly affects yields.

Corey Lesk, Pedram Rowhani & Navin Ramankutty

doi: 10.1038/nature16467

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The calcium sensor synaptotagmin 7 is required for synaptic facilitation p.88

Synaptotagmin 7 is shown to be essential for synaptic facilitation at a variety of central synapses, and the results pave the way for future functional studies of short-term synaptic plasticity, a fundamental form of neuronal computation.

Skyler L. Jackman, Josef Turecek, Justine E. Belinsky & Wade G. Regehr

doi: 10.1038/nature16507

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The C. elegans adult neuronal IIS/FOXO transcriptome reveals adult phenotype regulators p.92

The FOXO transcription factor, DAF-16, is required for the long-life phenotype of daf-2 mutant nematode worms; here the authors find that daf-2 mutant worms maintain neuronal functions and behaviours with age by using a set of transcriptional targets that are distinct from previously identified canonical FOXO/DAF-16-regulated targets.

Rachel Kaletsky, Vanisha Lakhina, Rachel Arey, April Williams, Jessica Landis, Jasmine Ashraf & Coleen T. Murphy

doi: 10.1038/nature16483

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Targeting PTPRK-RSPO3 colon tumours promotes differentiation and loss of stem-cell function p.97

Antibody-mediated inhibition of R-spondin-3 in colorectal tumours decreases tumour growth and promotes differentiation—these effects are associated with a decrease in expression of genes associated with stem-cell function.

Elaine E. Storm, Steffen Durinck, Felipe de Sousa e Melo, Jarrod Tremayne, Noelyn Kljavin, Christine Tan, Xiaofen Ye, Cecilia Chiu, Thinh Pham, Jo-Anne Hongo + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16466

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Species difference in ANP32A underlies influenza A virus polymerase host restriction p.101

The host protein ANP32A is shown here to be a species barrier to the function of avian influenza virus polymerase in mammalian cells; the mutation E627K in viral protein PB2, which allows mammalian ANP32 family proteins to support the avian virus polymerase, is known to be associated with increased virulence of avian viruses in mammals.

Jason S. Long, Efstathios S. Giotis, Olivier Moncorgé, Rebecca Frise, Bhakti Mistry, Joe James, Mireille Morisson, Munir Iqbal, Alain Vignal, Michael A. Skinner + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16474

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A LAIR1 insertion generates broadly reactive antibodies against malaria variant antigens p.105

Monoclonal antibodies with broad reactivity against antigens on the parasite that causes malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, are isolated from two subjects and are found to have an unusual insertion of an immunoglobulin-like domain from a different chromosome, illustrating a new mechanism of antibody diversification.

Joshua Tan, Kathrin Pieper, Luca Piccoli, Abdirahman Abdi, Mathilde Foglierini, Roger Geiger, Claire Maria Tully, David Jarrossay, Francis Maina Ndungu, Juliana Wambua + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16450

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Insulator dysfunction and oncogene activation in IDH mutant gliomas p.110

An epigenetic mechanism in which gain-of-function IDH mutations promote gliomagenesis by disrupting chromosomal topology is presented, with IDH mutations causing the binding sites of the methylation-sensitive insulator CTCF to become hypermethylated; disruption of a CTCF boundary near the glioma oncogene PDGFRA allows a constitutive enhancer to contact and activate the oncogene aberrantly.

William A. Flavahan, Yotam Drier, Brian B. Liau, Shawn M. Gillespie, Andrew S. Venteicher, Anat O. Stemmer-Rachamimov, Mario L. Suvà & Bradley E. Bernstein

doi: 10.1038/nature16490

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