네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Root causes p.7

Research has a part to play in identifying the factors that breed terrorism.

doi: 10.1038/528007b

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Make the most of PhDs p.7

The number of people with science doctorates is rapidly increasing, but there are not enough academic jobs for them all. Graduate programmes should be reformed to meet students’ needs.

doi: 10.1038/528007a

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Take more risks p.8

Scientific innovation is being smothered by a culture of conformity.

doi: 10.1038/528008a

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News

News Features

How to build a better PhD p.22

There are too many PhD students for too few academic jobs — but with imagination, the problem could be solved.

Julie Gould

doi: 10.1038/528022a

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News & Views

Close encounters of the alpha kind p.42

Breakthrough calculations of collisions between two helium nuclei pave the way to a quantitative understanding of how the elements carbon and oxygen were made in stars — and to improved models of stellar evolution. See Letter p.111

Sofia Quaglioni

doi: 10.1038/528042a

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Ecosystem vulnerability to ocean warming p.43

Analysis of the temperature ranges occupied by marine species finds that the vulnerability of ecological communities to global warming may depend more on organismal physiology than on the magnitude of change. See Article p.88

Derek P. Tittensor

doi: 10.1038/nature16314

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Inflammation keeps old mice healthy p.44

Immune cells called regulatory T cells accumulate in fat during ageing. The anti-inflammatory activity of these cells worsens age-associated defects in metabolism, in contrast to its effect in obesity. See Letter p.137

Ivan Maillard & Alan R. Saltiel

doi: 10.1038/nature15648

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A century of phage lessons p.46

One hundred years after the first description of viruses that infect bacterial cells, the contribution of these bacteriophages to fundamental biology, biotechnology and human health continues unabated and deserves celebration.

Forest Rohwer & Anca M. Segall

doi: 10.1038/528046a

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Getting the measure of entanglement p.48

A property called entanglement entropy helps to describe the quantum states of interacting particles, and it has at last been measured. The findings open the door to a deeper understanding of quantum systems. See Article p.77

Steven Rolston

doi: 10.1038/528048a

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Tumour cells on neighbourhood watch p.49

The discovery of microtube structures that link tumour cells in some invasive brain tumours reveals how these cancers spread, and how they resist treatment. See Article p.93

Harald Sontheimer

doi: 10.1038/nature15649

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Perspectives

Managing nitrogen for sustainable development p.51

Careful management of nitrogen fertilizer usage is required to ensure world food security while limiting environmental degradation; an analysis of historical nitrogen use efficiency reveals socio-economic factors and technological innovations that have influenced a range of past national trends and that suggest ways to improve global food production and environmental stewardship by 2050.

Xin Zhang, Eric A. Davidson, Denise L. Mauzerall, Timothy D. Searchinger, Patrice Dumas & Ye Shen

doi: 10.1038/nature15743

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The contentious nature of soil organic matter p.60

Instead of containing stable and chemically unique ‘humic substances’, as has been widely accepted, soil organic matter is a mixture of progressively decomposing organic compounds; this has broad implications for soil science and its applications.

Johannes Lehmann & Markus Kleber

doi: 10.1038/nature16069

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Soil biodiversity and human health p.69

Soil biodiversity sustains human health and its loss can be mitigated by sustainable management.

Diana H. Wall, Uffe N. Nielsen & Johan Six

doi: 10.1038/nature15744

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Analysis

Pharmacogenomic agreement between two cancer cell line data sets p.84

n panels of cancer cell lines analysed for their response to drug libraries, some studies have proposed distinct pharmacological sensitivities for some cell lines while other studies have not seen the same trends; here the data in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer are reassessed, and the authors report a stronger degree of concordance between the two data sets than that in a previous study.

doi: 10.1038/nature15736

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Articles

Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system p.77

Entanglement, which describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, is very difficult to measure, especially in systems of itinerant particles; here spatial entanglement is measured for ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices.

Rajibul Islam, Ruichao Ma, Philipp M. Preiss, M. Eric Tai, Alexander Lukin, Matthew Rispoli & Markus Greiner

doi: 10.1038/nature15750

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Thermal biases and vulnerability to warming in the world’s marine fauna p.88

How marine communities will respond to climate change depends on the thermal sensitivities of existing communities; existing reef communities do not show a perfect fit between current temperatures and the thermal niches of the species within them and this thermal bias is a major contributor to projected local species loss.

Rick D. Stuart-Smith, Graham J. Edgar, Neville S. Barrett, Stuart J. Kininmonth & Amanda E. Bates

doi: 10.1038/nature16144

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Brain tumour cells interconnect to a functional and resistant network p.93

Brain tumours are difficult to treat because of their propensity to infiltrate brain tissue; here long processes, or tumour microtubes, extended by astrocytomas are shown to promote brain infiltration and to create an interconnected network that enables multicellular communication and that protects the tumours from radiotherapy-induced cell death, suggesting that disruption of the network could be a new therapeutic approach.

Matthias Osswald, Erik Jung, Felix Sahm, Gergely Solecki, Varun Venkataramani, Jonas Blaes, Sophie Weil, Heinz Horstmann, Benedikt Wiestler, Mustafa Syed + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16071

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Overflow metabolism in Escherichia coli results from efficient proteome allocation p.99

Using experimental proteomics and modelling in E. coli, the amount of protein needed to run respiration (per ATP produced) is shown to be twice as much as that needed to run fermentation; results demonstrate that overflow metabolism (known as the Warburg effect in cancer cells) is a necessary outcome of optimal bacterial growth, governed by a global resource allocation program, and that the methodology is directly applicable to synthetic biology and cancer research.

Markus Basan, Sheng Hui, Hiroyuki Okano, Zhongge Zhang, Yang Shen, James R. Williamson & Terence Hwa

doi: 10.1038/nature15765

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Letters

Warm–hot baryons comprise 5–10 per cent of filaments in the cosmic web p.105

In the local Universe, the census of all observed baryons falls short of the estimated number by a factor of two, and simulations have indicated that the missing baryons reside throughout the filaments of the cosmic web; X-ray observations of filamentary structures associated with the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 now find that 5 to 10 per cent of the filament mass is in the form of baryonic gas.

Dominique Eckert, Mathilde Jauzac, HuanYuan Shan, Jean-Paul Kneib, Thomas Erben, Holger Israel, Eric Jullo, Matthias Klein, Richard Massey, Johan Richard + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16058

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Relativistic baryonic jets from an ultraluminous supersoft X-ray source p.108

Persistent low-velocity baryonic jets have been detected from a supersoft X-ray source; the low velocity suggests that these jets have not been launched from a white dwarf, and the persistence speaks against the origin being a canonical black hole or neutron star, indicating that a different type of source must be implicated.

Ji-Feng Liu, Yu Bai, Song Wang, Stephen Justham, You-Jun Lu, Wei-Min Gu, Qing-Zhong Liu, Rosanne Di Stefano, Jin-Cheng Guo, Antonio Cabrera-Lavers + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15751

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Ab initio alpha–alpha scattering p.111

An ab initio calculation of alpha–alpha scattering is described for which the number of computational operations scales approximately quadratically with particle number and which uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations and lattice effective field theory, combined with the adiabatic projection method to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system.

Serdar Elhatisari, Dean Lee, Gautam Rupak, Evgeny Epelbaum, Hermann Krebs, Timo A. Lähde, Thomas Luu & Ulf-G. Meißner

doi: 10.1038/nature16067

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Potential sea-level rise from Antarctic ice-sheet instability constrained by observations p.115

Recent work has suggested that sections of the West Antarctic ice sheet are already rapidly retreating, raising concerns about increased sea-level rise; now, an ice-sheet model is used to simulate the mass loss from the entire Antarctic ice sheet to 2200, suggesting that it could contribute up to 30 cm of sea-level rise by 2100 and 72 cm by 2200, but is unlikely to contribute more.

Catherine Ritz, Tamsin L. Edwards, Gaël Durand, Antony J. Payne, Vincent Peyaud & Richard C. A. Hindmarsh

doi: 10.1038/nature16147

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Death from drought in tropical forests is triggered by hydraulics not carbon starvation p.119

It has been suggested that carbon starvation, owing to reduced availability of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), is an important contributor to tree mortality during drought in tropical rainforests; however, data from the world’s longest-running experimental drought study presented here show no evidence of carbon starvation, and instead the researchers conclude that impaired water hydraulic processes (involving the transport of water from soil to leaf) have a more important role in triggering tree death from long-term drought.

L. Rowland, A. C. L. da Costa, D. R. Galbraith, R. S. Oliveira, O. J. Binks, A. A. R. Oliveira, A. M. Pullen, C. E. Doughty, D. B. Metcalfe, S. S. Vasconcelos + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15539

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Reversal of phenotypes in MECP2 duplication mice using genetic rescue or antisense oligonucleotides p.123

Genetic correction of MeCP2 levels largely reversed the behavioural, molecular and physiological deficits associated with MECP2 duplication syndrome in a transgenic mouse model; similarly, reduction of MeCP2 levels using an antisense oligonucleotide strategy resulted in phenotypic rescue in adult transgenic mice, and dose-dependently corrected MeCP2 levels in cells from patients with MECP2 duplication.

Yehezkel Sztainberg, Hong-mei Chen, John W. Swann, Shuang Hao, Bin Tang, Zhenyu Wu, Jianrong Tang, Ying-Wooi Wan, Zhandong Liu, Frank Rigo + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16159

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Therapeutic antibodies reveal Notch control of transdifferentiation in the adult lung p.127

Inhibitory antibodies to two specific human and mouse Notch ligands, Jagged1 and Jagged2, are generated and shown to have beneficial effects in a goblet cell metaplasia asthma model; systemic Jagged1 inhibition transdifferentiates secretory cells into ciliated cells in the mouse, demonstrating that Jagged1 from ciliated cells normally holds back secretory cells to adopt the ciliated fate.

Daniel Lafkas, Amy Shelton, Cecilia Chiu, Gladys de Leon Boenig, Yongmei Chen, Scott S. Stawicki, Christian Siltanen, Mike Reichelt, Meijuan Zhou, Xiumin Wu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15715

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A mechanism for expansion of regulatory T-cell repertoire and its role in self-tolerance p.132

Regulatory T cells need to express a diverse T-cell-receptor repertoire to control pathogenic self-reactive T cells; here it is shown that repertoire diversification depends on the intronic Foxp3 enhancer CNS3 acting at the regulatory T-cell-precursor stage to induce T-cell-receptor responsiveness to low-strength signals.

Yongqiang Feng, Joris van der Veeken, Mikhail Shugay, Ekaterina V. Putintseva, Hatice U. Osmanbeyoglu, Stanislav Dikiy, Beatrice E. Hoyos, Bruno Moltedo, Saskia Hemmers, Piper Treuting + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16141

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Depletion of fat-resident Treg cells prevents age-associated insulin resistance p.137

Fat-resident regulatory T cells (fTreg cells) accumulate in adipose tissue of mice as a function of age, but not obesity; mice without fTreg cells are protected against age-associated insulin resistance, but remain susceptible to obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic disease, indicating different aetiologies of age-associated versus obesity-associated insulin resistance.

Sagar P. Bapat, Jae Myoung Suh, Sungsoon Fang, Sihao Liu, Yang Zhang, Albert Cheng, Carmen Zhou, Yuqiong Liang, Mathias LeBlanc, Christopher Liddle + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16151

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Transcriptional regulators form diverse groups with context-dependent regulatory functions p.147

A large-scale enhancer complementation assay assessing the activating or repressing contributions of over 800 Drosophila transcription factors and cofactors to combinatorial enhancer control reveals a more complex picture than expected, with many factors having diverse regulatory functions that depend on the enhancer context.

Gerald Stampfel, Tomáš Kazmar, Olga Frank, Sebastian Wienerroither, Franziska Reiter & Alexander Stark

doi: 10.1038/nature15545

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