네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Research for all p.275

Numbers on racial bias in research grants awarded by the US National Institutes of Health show that science has more to learn about inclusiveness.

doi: 10.1038/527275a

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Defensive drives p.275

Researchers exploring ways to genetically alter wild populations are wise to air their plans.

doi: 10.1038/527275b

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Dope rules p.276

Science is beside the point when an entrenched culture in a sport supports scoundrels.

doi: 10.1038/527276a

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News

The exoplanet files p.288

What we know about alien worlds — and what’s coming next.

Alexandra Witze

doi: 10.1038/527288a

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News Features

News & Views

Extra dimension for bone analysis p.308

A combination of two techniques — computed tomography and small-angle X-ray scattering — and serious computing power have enabled multi-scale, three-dimensional analysis of bone and tooth tissue. See Letters p.349 & p.353

Peter Fratzl

doi: 10.1038/527308a

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Homed to the hideout p.309

Some Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are thought to survive standard antibiotic treatment by 'hiding' in host cells. But an antibody–antibiotic conjugate has been developed that targets these bacteria in mouse models. See Article p.323

Wolf-Dietrich Hardt

doi: 10.1038/nature15647

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Growing planet brought to light p.310

Thousands of extrasolar planets have been discovered, but none is a planet in its infancy. Observations have finally been made of a young planet growing in its birthplace — opening the way to many more such discoveries. See Letter >p.342

Zhaohuan Zhu

doi: 10.1038/527310a

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On the crest of becoming vertebrate p.311

The discovery of cells in an invertebrate that share several features with vertebrate neural-crest cells provides insights into how this vital vertebrate cell population might have evolved. See Letter p.371

Marianne E. Bronner

doi: 10.1038/nature15645

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Organ-seeking vesicles p.312

An analysis reveals that cancer cells remotely prepare distant sites for tumour spread in an organ-specific manner, by deploying organ-seeking extracellular vesicles. See Article p.329

Janusz Rak

doi: 10.1038/nature15642

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Boost for movement p.314

By electrically stimulating the motor neurons of rats that have spinal-cord injury, in bursts that are attuned to the times at which the neurons receive voluntary motor commands, the animals' recovery can be improved.

Randolph J. Nudo

doi: 10.1038/527314a

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Ecosystem responses to climate extremes p.315

Extreme drought or wet conditions have now been found to strongly influence the vegetative development of ecosystems. Semi-arid regions are most affected — raising concerns about their vulnerability to long-term drought in the future.

Anja Rammig & Miguel D. Mahecha

doi: 10.1038/527315a

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Articles

Dpp spreading is required for medial but not for lateral wing disc growth p.317

The morphogen Decapentaplegic (Dpp) has been implicated in both wing patterning and growth in fruitflies; here, a nanobody-based morphotrap approach has been developed that rules out a role for the Dpp gradient in regulating lateral wing growth.

Stefan Harmansa, Fisun Hamaratoglu, Markus Affolter & Emmanuel Caussinus

doi: 10.1038/nature15712

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Novel antibody–antibiotic conjugate eliminates intracellular S. aureus p.323

Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, such as MRSA, are proving increasingly difficult to treat; here, one reason for this is confirmed to be the fact that S. aureus bacteria can reside in intracellular reservoirs where they are protected from antibiotics, but a new strategy—based on an antibody–antibiotic conjugate—can specifically target these reservoirs.

Sophie M. Lehar, Thomas Pillow, Min Xu, Leanna Staben, Kimberly K. Kajihara, Richard Vandlen, Laura DePalatis, Helga Raab, Wouter L. Hazenbos, J. Hiroshi Morisaki + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16057

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Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis p.329

Exosomes originating from lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells are preferentially incorporated by specific resident cells of the target organs, thus preparing the site for metastasis; the expression of distinct combinations of exosomal integrin proteins determines the exosomal targeting to each of the three organs, and blocking these integrins reduces organotropic exosome uptake by the target organs, thereby reducing the likelihood of organotropic metastasis.

Ayuko Hoshino, Bruno Costa-Silva, Tang-Long Shen, Goncalo Rodrigues, Ayako Hashimoto, Milica Tesic Mark, Henrik Molina, Shinji Kohsaka, Angela Di Giannatale, Sophia Ceder + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15756

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Gating machinery of InsP3R channels revealed by electron cryomicroscopy p.336

This study has determined the electron cryomicroscopy structure of the mammalian type 1 InsP3 receptor in a ligand-free state at 4.7 Å resolution; although the central Ca2+-conduction pathway is similar to other ion channels, the unique architecture of the C-terminal domains of the tetrameric channel suggests that a distinctive allosteric mechanism underlies the activation of InsP3 gating.

Guizhen Fan, Matthew L. Baker, Zhao Wang, Mariah R. Baker, Pavel A. Sinyagovskiy, Wah Chiu, Steven J. Ludtke & Irina I. Serysheva

doi: 10.1038/nature15249

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Letters

Accreting protoplanets in the LkCa 15 transition disk p.342

Transition disks are natural laboratories for the study of planet formation, with inner clearings explained by the influence of accreting planets, but attempts to observe directly accretion onto protoplanets have proven unsuccessful so far; here the authors detect infrared emission from multiple companions of the LkCa 15 system and Ha emission from the innermost (LkCa 15 b), showing hot (~10,000 K) gas falling deep into the potential well of an accreting protoplanet.

S. Sallum, K. B. Follette, J. A. Eisner, L. M. Close, P. Hinz, K. Kratter, J. Males, A. Skemer, B. Macintosh, P. Tuthill + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15761

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Measurement of interaction between antiprotons p.345

The interaction between antiprotons, produced by colliding high-energy gold ions, is shown to be attractive, and two important parameters of this interaction are measured, namely the scattering length and the effective range.

doi: 10.1038/nature15724

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Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography p.349

An imaging method that combines small-angle X-ray scattering with tensor tomography to probe nanoscale structures in macroscopic samples is introduced and demonstrated by measuring the main orientation and the degree of orientation of nanoscale mineralized collagen fibrils in a human trabecula bone sample.

Marianne Liebi, Marios Georgiadis, Andreas Menzel, Philipp Schneider, Joachim Kohlbrecher, Oliver Bunk & Manuel Guizar-Sicairos

doi: 10.1038/nature16056

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Six-dimensional real and reciprocal space small-angle X-ray scattering tomography p.353

A small-angle X-ray scattering computed tomography method that reduces the amount of data that needs to be collected and analysed to reconstruct the three-dimensional scattering distribution in reciprocal space of a three-dimensional sample in real space is demonstrated by measuring the orientation of collagen fibres within a human tooth.

Florian Schaff, Martin Bech, Paul Zaslansky, Christoph Jud, Marianne Liebi, Manuel Guizar-Sicairos & Franz Pfeiffer

doi: 10.1038/nature16060

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Methane storage in flexible metal–organic frameworks with intrinsic thermal management p.357

Two flexible metal-organic frameworks are presented as solid adsorbents for methane that undergo reversible phase transitions at specific methane pressures, enabling greater storage capacities of usable methane than have been achieved previously, while also providing internal heat management of the system.

Jarad A. Mason, Julia Oktawiec, Mercedes K. Taylor, Matthew R. Hudson, Julien Rodriguez, Jonathan E. Bachman, Miguel I. Gonzalez, Antonio Cervellino, Antonietta Guagliardi, Craig M. Brown + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15732

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North Pacific deglacial hypoxic events linked to abrupt ocean warming p.362

The processes responsible for driving the expansion of the ocean's oxygen minimum zones remain uncertain; here sediment core data from the Gulf of Alaska suggest that reduced oxygen solubility was a result of ocean warming initiating the expansion of the North Pacific oxygen minimum zone, leading to increased marine productivity and carbon export and, in turn, further reductions in dissolved oxygen levels.

S. K. Praetorius, A. C. Mix, M. H. Walczak, M. D. Wolhowe, J. A. Addison & F. G. Prahl

doi: 10.1038/nature15753

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The effects of life history and sexual selection on male and female plumage colouration p.367

By quantifying the colouration of all approximately 6,000 species of passerine birds, certain life-history traits such as large body size and tropical distribution are found to increase ornamentation in both male and female birds, whereas cooperative breeding increases it in females only, and sexual selection diminishes it in females more than it increases it in males.

James Dale, Cody J. Dey, Kaspar Delhey, Bart Kempenaers & Mihai Valcu

doi: 10.1038/nature15509

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Migratory neuronal progenitors arise from the neural plate borders in tunicates p.371

Neuronal precursor cells in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis are shown to delaminate and undergo directed cell migration along either side of the neural tube before differentiating into bipolar neurons, suggesting that vertebrate neural-crest-derived sensory neurons have much deeper evolutionary roots.

Alberto Stolfi, Kerrianne Ryan, Ian A. Meinertzhagen & Lionel Christiaen

doi: 10.1038/nature15758

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Diversion of aspartate in ASS1-deficient tumours fosters de novo pyrimidine synthesis p.379

ASS1, a urea cycle enzyme, promotes cancer cell proliferation by facilitating pyrimidine synthesis via CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase complex) activation.

Shiran Rabinovich, Lital Adler, Keren Yizhak, Alona Sarver, Alon Silberman, Shani Agron, Noa Stettner, Qin Sun, Alexander Brandis, Daniel Helbling + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15529

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DNA-dependent formation of transcription factor pairs alters their binding specificity p.384

A high-throughput analysis of DNA binding in over 9,000 interacting transcription factor pairs reveals that the interactions are often actively mediated by the DNA itself and the composite DNA sites recognized are different from the individual motifs of each transcription factor.

Arttu Jolma, Yimeng Yin, Kazuhiro R. Nitta, Kashyap Dave, Alexander Popov, Minna Taipale, Martin Enge, Teemu Kivioja, Ekaterina Morgunova & Jussi Taipale

doi: 10.1038/nature15518

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Histone H1 couples initiation and amplification of ubiquitin signalling after DNA damage p.389

At the initiation of DNA double-strand break repair, a number of ubiquitylation events occur; here, the RNF8 ubiquitin E3 ligase and the ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzyme, UBC13, are shown to primarily modify H1-type linker histones, via a K63 linkage.

Tina Thorslund, Anita Ripplinger, Saskia Hoffmann, Thomas Wild, Michael Uckelmann, Bine Villumsen, Takeo Narita, Titia K. Sixma, Chunaram Choudhary, Simon Bekker-Jensen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15401

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The inner workings of the hydrazine synthase multiprotein complex p.394

Hydrazine is an intermediate in the process of anaerobic ammonium oxidation which has a major role in the Earth’s nitrogen cycle; the crystal structure of a hydrazine synthase enzyme provides insights into the mechanism of hydrazine synthesis.

Andreas Dietl, Christina Ferousi, Wouter J. Maalcke, Andreas Menzel, Simon de Vries, Jan T. Keltjens, Mike S. M. Jetten, Boran Kartal & Thomas R. M. Barends

doi: 10.1038/nature15517

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