네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Universities’ value p.133

Proposals for UK higher education contain some positive points amid the financial gloom.

doi: 10.1038/527133b

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A breath of fresh air p.133

The decision to use the Montreal Protocol to reduce the impact of refrigerants on global warming is a step forward ahead of the Paris climate summit.

doi: 10.1038/527133a

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Radio interference p.134

Conflict at the Arecibo Observatory highlights the need for funders to become more flexible.

doi: 10.1038/527134a

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News

News Features

News & Views

DNA repair without flipping out p.168

Time-resolved molecular snapshots of the bacterial enzyme AlkD reveal an unprecedented mechanism for the recognition and removal of damaged bases in DNA, with implications for cell biology and cancer therapy. See Letter p.254

David S. Shin & John A. Tainer

doi: 10.1038/nature15646

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A small star with an Earth-like planet p.169

A rocky planet close in size to Earth has been discovered in the cosmic vicinity of our Sun. The small size and proximity of the associated star bode well for studies of the planet's atmosphere. See Letter p.204

Drake Deming

doi: 10.1038/527169a

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The enemy of my enemy is my friend p.170

Reactive oxygen species have been viewed as stress-inducing molecules that promote cancer initiation. But new evidence indicates that oxidative stress can be beneficial — inhibiting the spread of a cancer to other sites. See Article p.186

Isaac S. Harris & Joan S. Brugge

doi: 10.1038/nature15644

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Deadly combination p.172

New evidence suggests that seismic waves from the Chicxulub meteorite impact doubled the eruption rate of lavas on the opposite side of the planet — a combination that led to the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period.

Robert Duncan

doi: 10.1038/527172a

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A rewired food web p.173

Climate change is causing large fish species to move into arctic marine environments. A network analysis finds that these fishes, with their generalist diets, add links to the existing food web that may alter biodiversity and web stability.

Julia L. Blanchard

doi: 10.1038/nature16311

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Liquefied molecular holes p.174

Porous solids have many uses in the chemical industry, which has stimulated the development of several generations of such materials. A new generation has now arrived, with the report of permanently porous liquids. See Letter p.216

Michael Mastalerz

doi: 10.1038/527174a

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Human sleep before the industrial era p.176

A quantitative study of sleep patterns in three pre-industrial societies implies that our natural sleep duration is close to seven hours, and that sleep cycles are determined by environmental temperature as well as the light–dark cycle.

Derk-Jan Dijk & Anne C. Skeldon

doi: 10.1038/527176a

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Higher costs of climate change p.177

An attempt to reconcile the effects of temperature on economic productivity at the micro and macro levels produces predictions of global economic losses due to climate change that are much higher than previous estimates. See Letter p.235

Thomas Sterner

doi: 10.1038/nature15643

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Articles

Basomedial amygdala mediates top-down control of anxiety and fear p.179

Activation of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex–basomedial amygdala pathway is shown to suppress anxiety and fear-related freezing in mice, thus identifying the basomedial amygdala (and not intercalated cells, as posited by earlier models) as a novel target of top-down control.

Avishek Adhikari, Talia N. Lerner, Joel Finkelstein, Sally Pak, Joshua H. Jennings, Thomas J. Davidson, Emily Ferenczi, Lisa A. Gunaydin, Julie J. Mirzabekov, Li Ye + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15698

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Oxidative stress inhibits distant metastasis by human melanoma cells p.186

Human melanoma cells grown in mice experience high levels of oxidative stress in the bloodstream such that few metastasizing cells survive to form tumours; the rare melanoma cells that successfully metastasize undergo metabolic changes that increase their capacity to withstand this stress, and antioxidant treatments increase metastasis formation by human melanoma cells, while inhibiting antioxidant pathways had the reverse effect.

Elena Piskounova, Michalis Agathocleous, Malea M. Murphy, Zeping Hu, Sara E. Huddlestun, Zhiyu Zhao, A. Marilyn Leitch, Timothy M. Johnson, Ralph J. DeBerardinis & Sean J. Morrison

doi: 10.1038/nature15726

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BCL11A enhancer dissection by Cas9-mediated in situ saturating mutagenesis p.192

A CRISPR-Cas9 approach is used to perform saturating mutagenesis of the human and mouse BCL11A enhancers, producing a map that reveals critical regions and specific vulnerabilities; BCL11A enhancer disruption is validated by CRISPR-Cas9 as a therapeutic strategy for inducing fetal haemoglobin by applying it in both mice and primary human erythroblast cells.

Matthew C. Canver, Elenoe C. Smith, Falak Sher, Luca Pinello, Neville E. Sanjana, Ophir Shalem, Diane D. Chen, Patrick G. Schupp, Divya S. Vinjamur, Sara P. Garcia + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15521

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Letters

A rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass star p.204

A low-mass star that is just 12 parsecs away from Earth is shown to be transited by an Earth-sized planet, GJ 1132b, which probably has a rock/iron composition and might support a substantial atmosphere.

Zachory K. Berta-Thompson, Jonathan Irwin, David Charbonneau, Elisabeth R. Newton, Jason A. Dittmann, Nicola Astudillo-Defru, Xavier Bonfils, Michaël Gillon, Emmanuël Jehin, Antony A. Stark + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15762

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Entangling two transportable neutral atoms via local spin exchange p.208

Spin-entangled states between two neutral atoms in different optical tweezers are prepared by combining them in the same optical tweezer and allowing for controlled interactions, after which the particles are dynamically separated in space and their entanglement is maintained.

A. M. Kaufman, B. J. Lester, M. Foss-Feig, M. L. Wall, A. M. Rey & C. A. Regal

doi: 10.1038/nature16073

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Large anomalous Hall effect in a non-collinear antiferromagnet at room temperature p.212

The Hall effect is sometimes encountered in ferromagnetic materials in the absence of an external magnetic field; this so-called anomalous Hall effect is now reported in the antiferromagnetic material Mn3Sn, where it occurs as a consequence of the unusual and complex arrangement of the constituent magnetic moments.

Satoru Nakatsuji, Naoki Kiyohara & Tomoya Higo

doi: 10.1038/nature15723

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Liquids with permanent porosity p.216

Porous materials find use in applications such as gas separation, drug delivery and energy storage, but have hitherto been solid rather than liquid; now a combination of cage molecules and a crown-ether solvent that cannot enter the cage molecules is used to create a porous liquid that can solubilize methane gas better than non-porous liquids.

Nicola Giri, Mario G. Del Pópolo, Gavin Melaugh, Rebecca L. Greenaway, Klaus Rätzke, Tönjes Koschine, Laure Pison, Margarida F. Costa Gomes, Andrew I. Cooper & Stuart L. James

doi: 10.1038/nature16072

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Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers p.226

Detection of molecular biomarkers characteristic of beeswax in pottery vessels at archaeological sites reveals that humans have exploited bee products (such as beeswax and honey) at least 9,000 years ago since the beginnings of agriculture.

Mélanie Roffet-Salque, Martine Regert, Richard P. Evershed, Alan K. Outram, Lucy J. E. Cramp, Orestes Decavallas, Julie Dunne, Pascale Gerbault, Simona Mileto, Sigrid Mirabaud + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15757

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Deep-time evolution of regeneration and preaxial polarity in tetrapod limb development p.231

Salamanders are the only tetrapod that can fully regenerate their limbs and tail, a capacity that might be linked to their unique preaxial mode of limb development; here, data from fossils reveal the existence of preaxial polarity in various amphibians from the Carboniferous and Permian periods, suggesting that salamander-like regeneration is an ancient feature of tetrapods that was subsequently lost at least once in the lineage leading to amniotes.

Nadia B. Fröbisch, Constanze Bickelmann, Jennifer C. Olori & Florian Witzmann

doi: 10.1038/nature15397

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Resensitizing daclatasvir-resistant hepatitis C variants by allosteric modulation of NS5A p.245

The drug daclatasvir (DCV), which inhibits the hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A), can successfully reduce viral load in patients; here, a combination of DCV and an NS5A analogue is shown to enhance DCV potency on multiple genotypes and overcome resistance in vitro and in a mouse model.

Jin-Hua Sun, Donald R. O’Boyle II, Robert A. Fridell, David R. Langley, Chunfu Wang, Susan B. Roberts, Peter Nower, Benjamin M. Johnson, Frederic Moulin, Michelle J. Nophsker + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15711

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Epigenetic silencing of TH1-type chemokines shapes tumour immunity and immunotherapy p.249

Treating ovarian cancer in mouse models with inhibitors for the epigenetic regulators EZH2 and DNMT1 increases the expression of the inflammatory chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, resulting in enhanced tumour infiltration by effector T cells, and slowed tumour progression.

Dongjun Peng, Ilona Kryczek, Nisha Nagarsheth, Lili Zhao, Shuang Wei, Weimin Wang, Yuqing Sun, Ende Zhao, Linda Vatan, Wojciech Szeliga + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15520

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The DNA glycosylase AlkD uses a non-base-flipping mechanism to excise bulky lesions p.254

Crystal structures of the DNA glycosylase AlkD with DNA containing various modified bases show that neither substrate recognition nor catalysis use a base-flipping mechanism; instead, AlkD scans the phosphodeoxyribose backbone for increased cationic charge imparted by the alkylated base, and then uses the positive charge to facilitate cleavage of the glycosidic bond, thus explaining the specificity of AlkD for cationic lesions.

Elwood A. Mullins, Rongxin Shi, Zachary D. Parsons, Philip K. Yuen, Sheila S. David, Yasuhiro Igarashi & Brandt F. Eichman

doi: 10.1038/nature15728

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Structure of a eukaryotic SWEET transporter in a homotrimeric complex p.259

The X-ray crystal structure is presented of a seven-transmembrane eukaryotic SWEET glucose transporter, revealing the link between seven-transmembrane eukaryotic SWEETs and their three-transmembrane bacterial homologues and providing insight into eukaryotic sugar transport mechanisms.

Yuyong Tao, Lily S. Cheung, Shuo Li, Joon-Seob Eom, Li-Qing Chen, Yan Xu, Kay Perry, Wolf B. Frommer & Liang Feng

doi: 10.1038/nature15391

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