네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Ills of the system p.7

Reform is long overdue for Germany’s archaic medical-education system, which puts undue pressure on students and contaminates the scientific literature.

doi: 10.1038/527007a

전문

Care for the carers p.7

Researchers should add their voices to the effort to stop attacks on health workers in war zones.

doi: 10.1038/527007b

전문

Smooth operator p.8

A tribute to the nineteenth-century polymath whose algebra lets you search the Internet.

doi: 10.1038/527008a

전문

News

News Features

The big baby experiment p.22

A London lab is deploying every technology it can to understand infant brains, and what happens when development goes awry.

Linda Geddes

doi: 10.1038/527022a

전문

News & Views

Australia at the crossroads p.40

A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

Benjamin L. Bodirsky & Alexander Popp

doi: 10.1038/527040a

전문

Droplets leap into action p.41

What could cause a water droplet to start bouncing on a surface? It seems that a combination of evaporation and a highly water-repellent surface induces droplet bouncing when ambient pressure is reduced. See Letter p.82

Doris Vollmer & Hans-Jürgen Butt

doi: 10.1038/527041a

전문

Light on leptin link to lipolysis p.43

Cutting-edge experiments show that the hormone leptin, which is secreted by fat cells, promotes fat loss by activating the release of catecholamine signalling molecules from neurons wrapped around the fat cells.

Johan Ruud & Jens C. Brüning

doi: 10.1038/527043a

전문

Electrical signalling goes bacterial p.44

The discovery that potassium ion channels are involved in electrical signalling between bacterial cells may help to unravel the role of ion channels in microbial physiology and communication. See Article p.59

Sarah D. Beagle & Steve W. Lockless

doi: 10.1038/nature15641

전문

Quantum sound waves stick together p.45

A sensitive cold-ion experiment probes sound at the level of phonons, the fundamental quantum units of vibration. It shows that phonons mix in such a way that they can be classified as 'bosonic' particles, like photons. See Letter p.74

Dave Kielpinski

doi: 10.1038/527045a

전문

Expression feels two pulses p.46

Single-cell analyses reveal that combinatorial changes in the intracellular locations of transcription factors can tune the expression of the factors' target genes in response to environmental stimuli. See Article p.54

Antoine Baudrimont & Attila Becskei

doi: 10.1038/nature15634

전문

Articles

Australia is ‘free to choose’ economic growth and falling environmental pressures p.49

A multi-model framework that accounts for climate, water, energy, food, biodiversity and economic activity in Australia reveals that a sustainable society that enjoys economic improvement without ecological deterioration is possible, but that specific political and economic choices need to be made to achieve this.

Steve Hatfield-Dodds, Heinz Schandl, Philip D. Adams, Timothy M. Baynes, Thomas S. Brinsmead, Brett A. Bryan, Francis H. S. Chiew, Paul W. Graham, Mike Grundy, Tom Harwood + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16065

전문 |PDF

Combinatorial gene regulation by modulation of relative pulse timing p.54

Many gene-regulatory proteins have been shown to activate in pulses, but whether cells exploit the dynamic interaction between pulses of different regulatory proteins has remained unexplored; here single-cell videos show that yeast cells modulate the relative timing between the pulsatile transcription factors Msn2 and Mig1—a gene activator and a repressor, respectively—to control the expression of target genes in response to diverse environmental conditions.

Yihan Lin, Chang Ho Sohn, Chiraj K. Dalal, Long Cai & Michael B. Elowitz

doi: 10.1038/nature15710

전문 |PDF

Ion channels enable electrical communication in bacterial communities p.59

Ion channels in bacterial biofilms are shown to conduct long-range electrical signals within the biofilm community through the propagation of potassium ions; as predicted by a simple mathematical model, potassium channel gating is shown to coordinate metabolic states between distant cells via electrical communication.

Arthur Prindle, Jintao Liu, Munehiro Asally, San Ly, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo & Gürol M. Süel

doi: 10.1038/nature15709

전문 |PDF

Architecture of the mammalian mechanosensitive Piezo1 channel p.64

Piezo1, a mechanosensitive cation channel, senses shear stress of blood flow for proper blood vessel development, regulates red blood cell function and controls cell migration and differentiation; here a trimeric architecture of this novel class of ion channel is reported, suggesting that Piezo1 may use its peripheral propeller-like ‘blades’ as force sensors to gate the central ion-conducting pore.

Jingpeng Ge, Wanqiu Li, Qiancheng Zhao, Ningning Li, Maofei Chen, Peng Zhi, Ruochong Li, Ning Gao, Bailong Xiao & Maojun Yang

doi: 10.1038/nature15247

전문 |PDF

Letters

Episodic molecular outflow in the very young protostellar cluster Serpens South p.70

A study of 12CO outflow emission from the protostellar source CARMA-7 in the cluster Serpens South suggests that episodic ejections of mass by the protostar begin in the earliest phase of protostellar evolution, probably providing a mechanism for driving the turbulence that is necessary for star formation in clusters.

Adele L. Plunkett, Héctor G. Arce, Diego Mardones, Pieter van Dokkum, Michael M. Dunham, Manuel Fernández-López, José Gallardo & Stuartt A. Corder

doi: 10.1038/nature15702

전문 |PDF

Hong–Ou–Mandel interference of two phonons in trapped ions p.74

The Hong–Ou–Mandel effect is a quantum phenomenon that involves the interference of bosonic particles and demonstrates their indistinguishability; this effect has been demonstrated previously for photons and neutral atoms, and is now demonstrated for phonons, using a system of trapped ions that are promising building blocks for quantum computers.

Kenji Toyoda, Ryoto Hiji, Atsushi Noguchi & Shinji Urabe

doi: 10.1038/nature15735

전문 |PDF

An aqueous, polymer-based redox-flow battery using non-corrosive, safe, and low-cost materials p.78

An affordable, safe, and scalable battery system is presented, which uses organic polymers as the charge-storage material in combination with inexpensive dialysis membranes and an aqueous sodium chloride solution as the electrolyte.

Tobias Janoschka, Norbert Martin, Udo Martin, Christian Friebe, Sabine Morgenstern, Hannes Hiller, Martin D. Hager & Ulrich S. Schubert

doi: 10.1038/nature15746

전문 |PDF

Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces p.82

Spontaneous levitation and trampoline-like bouncing behaviour of water droplets on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces in a low-pressure environment are observed, and are due to a build-up of overpressure in the surface texture beneath the droplets.

Thomas M. Schutzius, Stefan Jung, Tanmoy Maitra, Gustav Graeber, Moritz Köhme & Dimos Poulikakos

doi: 10.1038/nature15738

전문 |PDF

The genetic sex-determination system predicts adult sex ratios in tetrapods p.91

An analysis of 344 species of tetrapods (birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians) shows that taxa in which the female is heterogametic tend to have a more male-biased sex ratio; the mechanisms driving the association are unclear, but sex-determination systems are likely to have important consequences for the social behaviour and demography of tetrapods.

Ivett Pipoly, Veronika Bókony, Mark Kirkpatrick, Paul F. Donald, Tamás Székely & András Liker

doi: 10.1038/nature15380

전문 |PDF

Differential responses to lithium in hyperexcitable neurons from patients with bipolar disorder p.95

A neuronal model of bipolar disorder based on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology finds hyperactive action-potential firing and differential responsiveness to lithium in iPSC-derived neurons from patients with bipolar disorder.

Jerome Mertens, Qiu-Wen Wang, Yongsung Kim, Diana X. Yu, Son Pham, Bo Yang, Yi Zheng, Kenneth E. Diffenderfer, Jian Zhang, Sheila Soltani + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15526

전문 |PDF

Microenvironment-induced PTEN loss by exosomal microRNA primes brain metastasis outgrowth p.100

Expression of the tumour suppressor PTEN in disseminated primary tumour cells is lost after tumour cells metastasize to the brain, with downregulation instigated by microRNAs from astrocytes, which are transferred from cell to cell by exosomes; these findings reveal the dynamic nature of metastatic cancer cells when adapting to a new tissue environment.

Lin Zhang, Siyuan Zhang, Jun Yao, Frank J. Lowery, Qingling Zhang, Wen-Chien Huang, Ping Li, Min Li, Xiao Wang, Chenyu Zhang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15376

전문 |PDF

Autophagy mediates degradation of nuclear lamina p.105

In response to cancer-associated stress, autophagy machinery mediates degradation of nuclear lamina components in mammals, suggesting that cells might degrade nuclear components to prevent tumorigenesis.

Zhixun Dou, Caiyue Xu, Greg Donahue, Takeshi Shimi, Ji-An Pan, Jiajun Zhu, Andrejs Ivanov, Brian C. Capell, Adam M. Drake, Parisha P. Shah + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15548

전문 |PDF

Conformational control of DNA target cleavage by CRISPR–Cas9 p.110

Cas9 is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease that targets foreign DNA for destruction as part of a bacterial adaptive immune system mediated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). Together with single-guide RNAs, Cas9 also functions as a powerful genome engineering tool in plants and animals, and efforts are underway to increase the efficiency and specificity of DNA targeting for potential therapeutic applications. Studies of off-target effects have shown that DNA binding is far more promiscuous than DNA cleavage, yet the molecular cues that govern strand scission have not been elucidated. Here we show that the conformational state of the HNH nuclease domain directly controls DNA cleavage activity. Using intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer experiments to detect relative orientations of the Cas9 catalytic domains when associated with on- and off-target DNA, we find that DNA cleavage efficiencies scale with the extent to which the HNH domain samples an activated conformation. We furthermore uncover a surprising mode of allosteric communication that ensures concerted firing of both Cas9 nuclease domains. Our results highlight a proofreading mechanism beyond initial protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) recognition and RNA–DNA base-pairing that serves as a final specificity checkpoint before DNA double-strand break formation.

Samuel H. Sternberg, Benjamin LaFrance, Matias Kaplan & Jennifer A. Doudna

doi: 10.1038/nature15544

전문 |PDF

Crystal structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from influenza C virus p.114

The X-ray crystal structure of influenza C virus polymerase, captured in a closed, pre-activation confirmation, is solved at 3.9 Å resolution; comparison with previous RNA-bound structures reveals large conformational changes associated with RNA binding and activation, and illustrates the notable flexibility of the influenza virus RNA polymerase.

Narin Hengrung, Kamel El Omari, Itziar Serna Martin, Frank T. Vreede, Stephen Cusack, Robert P. Rambo, Clemens Vonrhein, Gérard Bricogne, David I. Stuart, Jonathan M. Grimes + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15525

전문 |PDF

Structural insight into substrate preference for TET-mediated oxidation p.118

In DNA demethylation, human TET proteins are evolutionarily tuned to be less reactive towards 5hmC and facilitate its generation as a potentially stable mark for regulatory functions.

Lulu Hu, Junyan Lu, Jingdong Cheng, Qinhui Rao, Ze Li, Haifeng Hou, Zhiyong Lou, Lei Zhang, Wei Li, Wei Gong + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15713

전문 |PDF