네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Let’s think about cognitive bias p.163

The human brain's abit of finding what it wants to find is a key problem for research. Establishing robust methods to avoid such bias will make results more reproducible.

doi: 10.1038/526163a

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Optimistic outlook p.164

In difficult times, Turkey is investing in a clutch of new scientific research centres.

doi: 10.1038/526164b

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Time to get clean p.164

Formal recognition of drug pollution will help to protect humans and ecosystems.

doi: 10.1038/526164a

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News

Morphing neutrinos win physics Nobel p.175

Demonstration by Takaaki Kajita and Arthur McDonald that neutrinos oscillate between identities showed that the particles have mass.

Elizabeth Gibney & Davide Castelvecchi

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18513

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News Features

Shinichi Mochizuki and the impenetrable proof p.178

A Japanese mathematician claims to have solved one of the most important problems in his field. The trouble is, hardly anyone can work out whether he's right.

Davide Castelvecchi

doi: 10.1038/526178a

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News & Views

Fifteen years of interventions p.198

A comprehensive modelling effort has revealed the relative contributions of different malaria-control measures to the massive reductions in disease prevalence that have occurred in Africa between 2000 and 2015. See Article p.207

Janet Hemingway

doi: 10.1038/526198a

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Mediating transcription and RNA export p.199

The finding that the Mediator protein complex contributes to messenger RNA export from the nucleus in yeast adds to a growing list of roles for the complex in regulating transcriptional processes.

Jonathan D. Rubin & Dylan J. Taatjes

doi: 10.1038/526199a

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Individuality sniffed out in flies p.200

The discovery that certain neurons' odour responses differ between individual fruit flies, but are consistent across the hemispheres of each fly's brain, indicates that sensory processing depends on an individual's experience. See Letter p.258

Thomas Frank & Rainer W. Friedrich

doi: 10.1038/nature15636

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Antiviral action countered by Nef p.202

The HIV protein Nef is a viral 'Swiss army knife' with many functions. New work now shows how Nef increases infectivity — by inhibiting two of the host cell's antiviral proteins, SERINC3 and SERINC5. See Articles p.212 & p.218

Christopher Aiken

doi: 10.1038/nature15637

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Quantum dots and the Kondo effect p.203

Nanotechnology studies explore the extreme properties of strongly interacting electronic systems through conductance measurements, and probe quantum phase transitions close to absolute zero temperature. See Letters p.233 & p.237

Karyn Le Hur

doi: 10.1038/526203a

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Surprisingly fast motions in a dust disk p.204

A recently commissioned planet-finding instrument has been used to study a young solar system around the star AU Microscopii, leading to the discovery of rapidly moving features in the dust disk around the star. See Letter p.230

Marshall D. Perrin

doi: 10.1038/526204a

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Articles

The effect of malaria control on Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 2000 and 2015 p.207

In this study, the authors present an analysis of the malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2015, and quantify the effects of the interventions that have been implemented to combat the disease; they find that the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection has been reduced by 50% since 2000 and the incidence of clinical disease by 40%, and that interventions have averted approximately 663 million clinical cases since 2000, with insecticide-treated bed nets being the largest contributor.

S. Bhatt, D. J. Weiss, E. Cameron, D. Bisanzio, B. Mappin, U. Dalrymple, K. E. Battle, C. L. Moyes, A. Henry, P. A. Eckhoff + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15535

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HIV-1 Nef promotes infection by excluding SERINC5 from virion incorporation p.212

The transmembrane protein SERINC5 is identified as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 particle infectivity that is counteracted by Nef; Nef redirects SERINC5 from the plasma membrane to a Rab7-positive endosomal compartment, thus excluding it from HIV-1 particles, emphasizing the potential of SERINC5 as a potent anti-retroviral factor.

Annachiara Rosa, Ajit Chande, Serena Ziglio, Veronica De Sanctis, Roberto Bertorelli, Shih Lin Goh, Sean M. McCauley, Anetta Nowosielska, Stylianos E. Antonarakis, Jeremy Luban + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15399

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SERINC3 and SERINC5 restrict HIV-1 infectivity and are counteracted by Nef p.218

The transmembrane proteins SERINC3 and SERINC5 are identified as new restriction factors for HIV-1 replication; this restriction is counteracted by Nef and glycoGag, which prevent SERINC3 and SERINC5 from becoming incorporated into HIV-1 virions and from profoundly blocking HIV-1 infectivity, suggesting a potential new therapeutic strategy for immunodeficiency viruses.

Yoshiko Usami, Yuanfei Wu & Heinrich G. Göttlinger

doi: 10.1038/nature15400

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Glycine receptor mechanism elucidated by electron cryo-microscopy p.224

A high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy structure of the zebrafish α1 glycine receptor bound to agonists or antagonists reveals the conformational changes that take place when the channel transitions from closed to open state.

Juan Du, Wei Lü, Shenping Wu, Yifan Cheng & Eric Gouaux

doi: 10.1038/nature14853

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Letters

Fast-moving features in the debris disk around AU Microscopii p.230

High-contrast imaging of the nearby, young, active late-type star AU Microscopii reveals five mysterious large-scale features in the southeast side of its debris disk, moving away from the star.

Anthony Boccaletti, Christian Thalmann, Anne-Marie Lagrange, Markus Janson, Jean-Charles Augereau, Glenn Schneider, Julien Milli, Carol Grady, John Debes, Maud Langlois + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15705

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Two-channel Kondo effect and renormalization flow with macroscopic quantum charge states p.233

Zero-temperature quantum phase transitions and their associated quantum critical points are believed to underpin the exotic finite-temperature behaviours of many strongly correlated electronic systems, but identifying the microscopic origins of these transitions can be challenging and controversial; Iftikhar et al. (see also the related paper by Keller et al.) show how such behaviours can be engineered into nanoelectronic quantum dots, which permit both precise experimental control of the quantum critical behaviour and its exact theoretical characterization.

Z. Iftikhar, S. Jezouin, A. Anthore, U. Gennser, F. D. Parmentier, A. Cavanna & F. Pierre

doi: 10.1038/nature15384

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Universal Fermi liquid crossover and quantum criticality in a mesoscopic system p.237

Zero-temperature quantum phase transitions and their associated quantum critical points are believed to underpin the exotic finite-temperature behaviours of many strongly correlated electronic systems, but identifying the microscopic origins of these transitions can be challenging and controversial; Keller et al. (see also the related paper by Iftikhar et al.) show how such behaviours can be engineered into nanoelectronic quantum dots, which permit both precise experimental control of the quantum critical behaviour and its exact theoretical characterization.

A. J. Keller, L. Peeters, C. P. Moca, I. Weymann, D. Mahalu, V. Umansky, G. Zaránd & D. Goldhaber-Gordon

doi: 10.1038/nature15261

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Palaeomagnetic field intensity variations suggest Mesoproterozoic inner-core nucleation p.245

Analysis of a database of Precambrian palaeomagnetic intensity measurements reveals a clear transition in the Earth’s magnetic field that is probably the signature of the inner core first forming, suggesting a modest value of core thermal conductivity and supporting a simple thermal evolution model for the Earth.

A. J. Biggin, E. J. Piispa, L. J. Pesonen, R. Holme, G. A. Paterson, T. Veikkolainen & L. Tauxe

doi: 10.1038/nature15523

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Sex‐specific demography and generalization of the Trivers–Willard theory p.249

The Trivers–Willard theory proposes that the sex ratio of offspring should vary with maternal condition when it has sex‐specific influences on offspring fitness. In particular, mothers in good condition in polygynous and dimorphic species are predicted to produce an excess of sons, whereas mothers in poor condition should do the opposite. Despite the elegance of the theory, support for it has been limited. Here we extend and generalize the Trivers–Willard theory to explain the disparity between predictions and observations of offspring sex ratio. In polygynous species, males typically have higher mortality rates, different age‐specific reproductive schedules and more risk‐prone life history tactics than females; however, these differences are not currently incorporated into the Trivers–Willard theory. Using two‐sex models parameterized with data from free‐living mammal populations with contrasting levels of sex differences in demography, we demonstrate how sex differences in life history traits over the entire lifespan can lead to a wide range of sex allocation tactics, and show that correlations between maternal condition and offspring sex ratio alone are insufficient to conclude that mothers adaptively adjust offspring sex ratio.

Susanne Schindler, Jean‐Michel Gaillard, André Grüning, Peter Neuhaus, Lochran W. Traill, Shripad Tuljapurkar & Tim Coulson

doi: 10.1038/nature14968

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Plasticity-driven individualization of olfactory coding in mushroom body output neurons p.258

Neuronal representations of sensory stimuli tend to become sparse and decorrelated, with different odours giving rise to fewer neuronal spikes in rare neurons, as signal processing moves up to higher brain layers; here comprehensive recording from the Drosophila olfactory processing centre finds instead some highly correlated tuning curves that vary flexibly from animal to animal.

Toshihide Hige, Yoshinori Aso, Gerald M. Rubin & Glenn C. Turner

doi: 10.1038/nature15396

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The genomic landscape of response to EGFR blockade in colorectal cancer p.263

The effect of somatic genetic changes in colorectal cancer on sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibody therapy is analysed.

Andrea Bertotti, Eniko Papp, Siân Jones, Vilmos Adleff, Valsamo Anagnostou, Barbara Lupo, Mark Sausen, Jillian Phallen, Carolyn A. Hruban, Collin Tokheim + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14969

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Mediator kinase inhibition further activates super-enhancer-associated genes in AML p.273

A small-molecule inhibitor of the Mediator-associated kinases CDK8 and CDK19 inhibits growth of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells and induces upregulation of super-enhancer-associated genes with tumour suppressor and lineage-controlling functions; Mediator kinase inhibition therefore represents a promising therapeutic approach for AML.

Henry E. Pelish, Brian B. Liau, Ioana I. Nitulescu, Anupong Tangpeerachaikul, Zachary C. Poss, Diogo H. Da Silva, Brittany T. Caruso, Alexander Arefolov, Olugbeminiyi Fadeyi, Amanda L. Christie + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14904

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Crystal structure of human glycine receptor-α3 bound to antagonist strychnine p.277

Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop receptor family are essential mediators of fast neurotransmission throughout the nervous system and are implicated in many neurological disorders. Available X-ray structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic Cys-loop receptors provide tremendous insights into the binding of agonists, the subsequent opening of the ion channel, and the mechanism of channel activation. Yet the mechanism of inactivation by antagonists remains unknown. Here we present a 3.0 Å X-ray structure of the human glycine receptor-α3 homopentamer in complex with a high affinity, high-specificity antagonist, strychnine. Our structure allows us to explore in detail the molecular recognition of antagonists. Comparisons with previous structures reveal a mechanism for antagonist-induced inactivation of Cys-loop receptors, involving an expansion of the orthosteric binding site in the extracellular domain that is coupled to closure of the ion pore in the transmembrane domain.

Xin Huang, Hao Chen, Klaus Michelsen, Stephen Schneider & Paul L. Shaffer

doi: 10.1038/nature14972

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