네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

In the name of beauty p.425

The ugly truth is that the plastic microbeads found in many skin scrubs and other personal-care products are a serious pollutant of the marine environment. They should be phased out rapidly.

doi: 10.1038/525425a

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Power play p.425

The replacement of mitochondria does not signal ethical problems.

doi: 10.1038/525425b

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STAP revisited p.426

Reanalysis of the controversy provides a strong example of the self-correcting nature of science.

doi: 10.1038/525426a

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News

News Features

Researchers wrestle with a privacy problem p.440

The data contained in tax returns, health and welfare records could be a gold mine for scientists — but only if they can protect people's identities.

Erika Check Hayden

doi: 10.1038/525440a

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News & Views

Crystals of a toxic core p.458

An ultra-high-resolution structure of the core segment of assembled α-synuclein — the protein that aggregates in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease — has been determined. A neurobiologist and a structural biologist discuss the implications of this advance. See Article p.486

Michel Goedert & Yifan Cheng

doi: 10.1038/nature15630

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Storms bring ocean nutrients to light p.460

Ships and ocean-observing robots have been used to quantify the amount of nutrients that a storm brings up from the Stygian ocean depths to the sunlit surface — a first step in assessing how storms affect oceanic biomass production.

Jaime Palter

doi: 10.1038/525460a

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A protein for healing infarcted hearts p.461

Human heart tissue has minimal ability to regenerate following injury. But the protein Fstl1, which is normally expressed in the heart's epicardial region, has now been shown to induce regeneration following heart attack. See Article p.479

Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic

doi: 10.1038/nature15217

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Neutrons with a twist p.462

Neutrons do not normally have orbital angular momentum. But the demonstration that a beam of neutrons can acquire this property, 23 years after it was shown in photons, offers the promise of improved imaging technologies. See Letter p.504

Robert W. Boyd

doi: 10.1038/525462a

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Infection elevates diversity p.464

Chromosomal shuffling in parental eggs or sperm can create new characteristics in the next generation. In fruit flies, it seems that mothers with a parasitic infection produce more such recombinant offspring than uninfected mothers.

Aneil F. Agrawal

doi: 10.1038/525464a

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Monstrous galaxies unmasked p.465

The enigma of how the most luminous galaxies arise is closer to being solved. New simulations show that these are long-lived massive galaxies powered by prodigious gas infall and the recycling of supernova-driven outflows. See Letter p.496

Romeel Davé

doi: 10.1038/525465a

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The karma of oil palms p.466

Despite their clonal origin, some oil palm trees develop fruits that give almost no oil. It emerges that the number of methyl groups attached to a DNA region called Karma determine which plants are defective. See Letter p.533

Jerzy Paszkowski

doi: 10.1038/nature15216

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Review

Hallmarks of pluripotency p.469

In response to the need for a defined set of criteria to assess stem-cell potency, this review proposes guidelines for the evaluation of newly derived pluripotent stem cells, from functional assays to integrative molecular analyses of transcriptional, epigenetic and metabolic states.

Alejandro De Los Angeles, Francesco Ferrari, Ruibin Xi, Yuko Fujiwara, Nissim Benvenisty, Hongkui Deng, Konrad Hochedlinger, Rudolf Jaenisch, Soohyun Lee, Harry G. Leitch + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15515

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Articles

Epicardial FSTL1 reconstitution regenerates the adult mammalian heart p.479

The secreted factor follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) becomes undetectable in the epicardium of infarcted hearts; when reconstituted using a collagen patch sutured onto an infarcted heart, FSTL1 can induce cell cycle entry and division of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, thus boosting heart function and survival in mouse and pig models of myocardial infarction.

Ke Wei, Vahid Serpooshan, Cecilia Hurtado, Marta Diez-Cuñado, Mingming Zhao, Sonomi Maruyama, Wenhong Zhu, Giovanni Fajardo, Michela Noseda, Kazuto Nakamura + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15372

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Structure of the toxic core of α-synuclein from invisible crystals p.486

A short segment of α-synuclein called NACore (residues 68–78) is responsible for the formation of amyloid aggregates responsible for cytotoxicity in Parkinson disease; here the nanocrystal structure of this invisible-to-optical-microscopy segment is determined using micro-electron diffraction, offering insight into its function and simultaneously demonstrating the first use of micro-electron diffraction to solve a previously unknown protein structure.

Jose A. Rodriguez, Magdalena I. Ivanova, Michael R. Sawaya, Duilio Cascio, Francis E. Reyes, Dan Shi, Smriti Sangwan, Elizabeth L. Guenther, Lisa M. Johnson, Meng Zhang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15368

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Structure of mammalian eIF3 in the context of the 43S preinitiation complex p.491

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) within the larger 43S complex is determined; the improved resolution enables visualization of the secondary structures of the subunits, as well as the contacts between eIF3 and both eIF2 and DHX29.

Amedee des Georges, Vidya Dhote, Lauriane Kuhn, Christopher U. T. Hellen, Tatyana V. Pestova, Joachim Frank & Yaser Hashem

doi: 10.1038/nature14891

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Letters

The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years p.496

Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe, but cosmological simulations of such galaxies have so far been unsuccessful; now a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation is reported that can form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints.

Desika Narayanan, Matthew Turk, Robert Feldmann, Thomas Robitaille, Philip Hopkins, Robert Thompson, Christopher Hayward, David Ball, Claude-André Faucher-Giguère & Dušan Kereš

doi: 10.1038/nature15383

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The diurnal cycle of water ice on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko p.500

Observations of water ice on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko show the ice appearing and disappearing in a cyclic pattern that follows local illumination conditions, providing a source of localized activity and leading to cycling modification of the ice abundance on the surface.

M. C. De Sanctis, F. Capaccioni, M. Ciarniello, G. Filacchione, M. Formisano, S. Mottola, A. Raponi, F. Tosi, D. Bockelée-Morvan, S. Erard + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14869

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Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum p.504

Interferometry reveals quantized changes in the angular momentum of neutrons that have been ‘twisted’ by passage through a spiral staircase structure.

Charles W. Clark, Roman Barankov, Michael G. Huber, Muhammad Arif, David G. Cory & Dmitry A. Pushin

doi: 10.1038/nature15265

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Novel competitors shape species’ responses to climate change p.515

Species’ range dynamics depend not only on their ability to track climate, but also on the migration of their competitors, and the extent to which novel and current competitors exert differing competitive effects.

Jake M. Alexander, Jeffrey M. Diez & Jonathan M. Levine

doi: 10.1038/nature14952

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A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic circuit controls maternal care and oxytocin secretion p.519

Sexual dimorphism in neuronal circuits is proposed to underlie sex differences in behaviour, such as virgin female mice acting maternally toward alien pups, while males ignore or attack them; here the authors show that specific tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus are more numerous in mothers than in virgin females and males, and that they control parental behaviour in a sex-specific manner.

Niv Scott, Matthias Prigge, Ofer Yizhar & Tali Kimchi

doi: 10.1038/nature15378

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Cell-fate determination by ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation p.523

This study shows that a vertebrate-specific ubiquitin ligase modulates neural crest specification in Xenopus development and human embryonic stem-cell differentiation; a proteomics approach reveals that the CUL3KBTBD8 ligase modulates translation by targeting the modulators of ribosomes production NOLC1 and its paralogue TCOF1, which is mutated in a neural-crest-associated syndrome.

Achim Werner, Shintaro Iwasaki, Colleen A. McGourty, Sofia Medina-Ruiz, Nia Teerikorpi, Indro Fedrigo, Nicholas T. Ingolia & Michael Rape

doi: 10.1038/nature14978

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Neutrophil ageing is regulated by the microbiome p.528

Neutrophil ageing, which encourages inflammation and vaso-occlusion in a mouse model of sickle-cell disease, is shown to depend on the intestinal microbiota and activation of the TLR/Myd88 signalling pathways.

Dachuan Zhang, Grace Chen, Deepa Manwani, Arthur Mortha, Chunliang Xu, Jeremiah J. Faith, Robert D. Burk, Yuya Kunisaki, Jung-Eun Jang, Christoph Scheiermann + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15367

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Loss of Karma transposon methylation underlies the mantled somaclonal variant of oil palm p.533

Somaclonal variation arises in plants and animals when differentiated somatic cells are induced into a pluripotent state, but the resulting clones differ from each other and from their parents. In agriculture, somaclonal variation has hindered the micropropagation of elite hybrids and genetically modified crops, but the mechanism responsible remains unknown. The oil palm fruit ‘mantled’ abnormality is a somaclonal variant arising from tissue culture that drastically reduces yield, and has largely halted efforts to clone elite hybrids for oil production. Widely regarded as an epigenetic phenomenon, ‘mantling’ has defied explanation, but here we identify the MANTLED locus using epigenome-wide association studies of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis. DNA hypomethylation of a LINE retrotransposon related to rice Karma, in the intron of the homeotic gene DEFICIENS, is common to all mantled clones and is associated with alternative splicing and premature termination. Dense methylation near the Karma splice site (termed the Good Karma epiallele) predicts normal fruit set, whereas hypomethylation (the Bad Karma epiallele) predicts homeotic transformation, parthenocarpy and marked loss of yield. Loss of Karma methylation and of small RNA in tissue culture contributes to the origin of mantled, while restoration in spontaneous revertants accounts for non-Mendelian inheritance. The ability to predict and cull mantling at the plantlet stage will facilitate the introduction of higher performing clones and optimize environmentally sensitive land resources.

Meilina Ong-Abdullah, Jared M. Ordway, Nan Jiang, Siew-Eng Ooi, Sau-Yee Kok, Norashikin Sarpan, Nuraziyan Azimi, Ahmad Tarmizi Hashim, Zamzuri Ishak, Samsul Kamal Rosli + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature15365

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BET inhibitor resistance emerges from leukaemia stem cells p.538

BET inhibitors that target bromodomain chromatin readers such as BRD4 are being explored as potential therapeutics in cancer; here, in a MLL–AF9 mouse leukaemia model, resistance to BET inhibitors is shown to emerge from leukaemia stem cells, and be partly due to increased Wnt/β-catenin signalling.

Chun Yew Fong, Omer Gilan, Enid Y. N. Lam, Alan F. Rubin, Sarah Ftouni, Dean Tyler, Kym Stanley, Devbarna Sinha, Paul Yeh, Jessica Morison + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14888

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Transcriptional plasticity promotes primary and acquired resistance to BET inhibition p.543

BET bromodomain inhibitors are being explored as potential therapeutics in cancer; here, AML cells are shown to evade sensitivity to BET inhibition through rewiring the transcriptional regulation of BRD4 target genes such as MYC in a process that is facilitated by suppression of PRC2 and WNT signalling activation.

Philipp Rathert, Mareike Roth, Tobias Neumann, Felix Muerdter, Jae-Seok Roe, Matthias Muhar, Sumit Deswal, Sabine Cerny-Reiterer, Barbara Peter, Julian Jude + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14898

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Crystal structures of a double-barrelled fluoride ion channel p.548

Microorganisms can export toxic fluoride ions through highly selective channels of the Fluc family; here, the crystal structures of two bacterial Fluc homologues are presented, revealing that selectivity for small F− ions may arise from the proteins’ narrow pores and unusual anion coordination.

Randy B. Stockbridge, Ludmila Kolmakova-Partensky, Tania Shane, Akiko Koide, Shohei Koide, Christopher Miller & Simon Newstead

doi: 10.1038/nature14981

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