네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Trial and triumph p.5

The success of an Ebola vaccine trial shows that clinical trials can be done under the difficult field conditions of an epidemic — if there is enough political and regulatory will.

doi: 10.1038/524005a

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Driving test p.5

‘Gene drive’ techniques have the potential to alter whole populations. Regulators must catch up.

doi: 10.1038/524005b

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News

News Features

The slow-chemistry movement p.20

Slow, solid-state reactions used by lichens and Renaissance pigment-makers could help to make chemistry greener.

XiaoZhi Lim

doi: 10.1038/524020a

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How to beat the next Ebola p.22

The world is ill-prepared for the next epidemic or pandemic. But the horror of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa may drive change.

Declan Butler

doi: 10.1038/524022a

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News & Views

Destruction perfected p.38

Pinpointing the nodes whose removal most effectively disrupts a network has become a lot easier with the development of an efficient algorithm. Potential applications might include cybersecurity and disease control. See Letter p.65

István A. Kovács & Albert-László Barabási

doi: 10.1038/524038a

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A smart insulin patch p.39

A microneedle-containing patch that is designed to sense elevated blood glucose levels and to respond by releasing insulin could offer people with diabetes a less-painful and more-reliable way to manage their condition.

Omid Veiseh & Robert Langer

doi: 10.1038/524039a

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Salvaging the genome p.40

Overexpression of the enzyme cytidine deaminase allows the incorporation of abnormally modified nucleotides into DNA, leading to cell death. This discovery might point the way to treating some cancers. See Letter p.114

Sharanya Sivanand & Kathryn E. Wellen

doi: 10.1038/nature14638

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A magnetic facelift for non-magnetic metals p.42

Copper and manganese have been engineered to show magnetism at room temperature in thin films interfaced with organic molecules. The findings show promise for developing new magnetic materials. See Letter p.69

Karthik V. Raman & Jagadeesh S. Moodera

doi: 10.1038/524042a

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Cyanate fuels the nitrogen cycle p.43

Cyanate, a degradation product of urea and cyanide, has been found to be a sufficient single substrate for the growth and reciprocal feeding of microorganisms that are essential to the global nitrogen cycle. See Letter p.105

Lisa Y. Stein

doi: 10.1038/nature14639

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Uncertain future for vegetation cover p.44

How will Earth's vegetation cover respond to climate change, and how does this compare with changes associated with human land use? Modelling studies reveal how little we still know, and act as a clarion call for further work.

Almut Arneth

doi: 10.1038/524044a

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Ribosomal ties that bind p.45

The ribosome is the cellular complex of proteins and RNA molecules that synthesizes proteins. An artificial ribosome in which the two main subunits are tethered together creates opportunities for engineering this process. See Letter p.119

Joseph D. Puglisi

doi: 10.1038/nature14642

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Articles

Comprehensive genomic profiles of small cell lung cancer p.47

Genomic sequencing of 110 human small cell lung cancers identifies genomic signatures including nearly ubiquitous bi-allelic inactivation of TP53 and RB1, a role for NOTCH family genes, and somatic rearrangements that create an oncogenic version of TP73.

Julie George, Jing Shan Lim, Se Jin Jang, Yupeng Cun, Luka Ozretić, Gu Kong, Frauke Leenders, Xin Lu, Lynnette Fernández-Cuesta, Graziella Bosco + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14664

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RNA degradation paths in a 12-subunit nuclear exosome complex p.54

Solving the crystal structure of an exosome complex from yeast, bound to different RNA substrates, offers insights into how the exosome can be utilized for precise processing of some 3′ ends, such as that of the 5.8S rRNA, while other RNAs are degraded to completion.

Debora Lika Makino, Benjamin Schuch, Elisabeth Stegmann, Marc Baumgärtner, Claire Basquin & Elena Conti

doi: 10.1038/nature14865

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Letters

Influence maximization in complex networks through optimal percolation p.65

A rigorous method to determine the most influential superspreaders in complex networks is presented—involving the mapping of the problem onto optimal percolation along with a scalable algorithm for big-data social networks—showing, unexpectedly, that many weak nodes can be powerful influencers.

Flaviano Morone & Hernán A. Makse

doi: 10.1038/nature14604

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Beating the Stoner criterion using molecular interfaces p.69

By harnessing the charge transfer that takes place at the interface between a metal and a layer of molecules, the usually non-magnetic materials copper and manganese are made magnetic at room temperature.

Fatma Al Ma’Mari, Timothy Moorsom, Gilberto Teobaldi, William Deacon, Thomas Prokscha, Hubertus Luetkens, Steve Lee, George E. Sterbinsky, Dario A. Arena, Donald A. MacLaren + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14621

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A zeolite family with expanding structural complexity and embedded isoreticular structures p.74

The complex structure of zeolite ZSM-25 is determined and a family of related structures are identified by using electron diffraction to uncover the structural ‘coding’ within them; this enabled the synthesis of two more-complex zeolites in the family.

Peng Guo, Jiho Shin, Alex G. Greenaway, Jung Gi Min, Jie Su, Hyun June Choi, Leifeng Liu, Paul A. Cox, Suk Bong Hong, Paul A. Wright + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14575

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Conversion of amides to esters by the nickel-catalysed activation of amide C–N bonds p.79

Amides are common functional groups that have been studied for more than a century. They are the key building blocks of proteins and are present in a broad range of other natural and synthetic compounds. Amides are known to be poor electrophiles, which is typically attributed to the resonance stability of the amide bond. Although amides can readily be cleaved by enzymes such as proteases, it is difficult to selectively break the carbon–nitrogen bond of an amide using synthetic chemistry. Here we demonstrate that amide carbon–nitrogen bonds can be activated and cleaved using nickel catalysts. We use this methodology to convert amides to esters, which is a challenging and underdeveloped transformation. The reaction methodology proceeds under exceptionally mild reaction conditions, and avoids the use of a large excess of an alcohol nucleophile. Density functional theory calculations provide insight into the thermodynamics and catalytic cycle of the amide-to-ester transformation. Our results provide a way to harness amide functional groups as synthetic building blocks and are expected to lead to the further use of amides in the construction of carbon–heteroatom or carbon–carbon bonds using non-precious-metal catalysis.

Liana Hie, Noah F. Fine Nathel, Tejas K. Shah, Emma L. Baker, Xin Hong, Yun-Fang Yang, Peng Liu, K. N. Houk & Neil K. Garg

doi: 10.1038/nature14615

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Erosion of organic carbon in the Arctic as a geological carbon dioxide sink p.84

Measurements of sediments eroded by the Mackenzie River reveal the widespread export of permafrost-derived biospheric carbon that is several thousand years old, and demonstrate its burial in the Arctic Ocean, suggesting that high-latitude rivers can act as important carbon dioxide sinks.

Robert G. Hilton, Valier Galy, Jérôme Gaillardet, Mathieu Dellinger, Charlotte Bryant, Matt O'Regan, Darren R. Gröcke, Helen Coxall, Julien Bouchez & Damien Calmels

doi: 10.1038/nature14653

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Viral-genetic tracing of the input–output organization of a central noradrenaline circuit p.88

To better understand the relationship between input and output connectivity for neurons of interest in specific brain regions, a viral-genetic tracing approach is used to identify input based on a combination of neurons’ projection and cell type, as illustrated in a study of locus coeruleus noradrenaline neurons.

Lindsay A. Schwarz, Kazunari Miyamichi, Xiaojing J. Gao, Kevin T. Beier, Brandon Weissbourd, Katherine E. DeLoach, Jing Ren, Sandy Ibanes, Robert C. Malenka, Eric J. Kremer + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14600

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Genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics of Ebola virus in Sierra Leone OPEN p.93

The genome sequences of 175 Ebola virus from five districts in Sierra Leone, collected during September–November 2014, show that the rate of virus evolution seems to be similar to that observed during previous outbreaks and that the genetic diversity of the virus has increased substantially, with the emergence of several novel lineages.

Yi-Gang Tong, Wei-Feng Shi, Di Liu, Jun Qian, Long Liang, Xiao-Chen Bo, Jun Liu, Hong-Guang Ren, Hang Fan, Ming Ni + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14490

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Temporal and spatial analysis of the 2014–2015 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa OPEN p.97

Analysis of 179 new Ebola virus sequences from patient samples collected in Guinea between March 2014 and January 2015 shows how different lineages evolved and spread in West Africa.

Miles W. Carroll, David A. Matthews, Julian A. Hiscox, Michael J. Elmore, Georgios Pollakis, Andrew Rambaut, Roger Hewson, Isabel García-Dorival, Joseph Akoi Bore, Raymond Koundouno + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14594

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Distinct lineages of Ebola virus in Guinea during the 2014 West African epidemic OPEN p.102

An analysis of 85 Ebola virus sequences collected in Guinea from July to November 2014 provides insight into the evolution of the Ebola virus responsible for the epidemic in West Africa; the results show sustained transmission of three co-circulating lineages, each defined by multiple mutations.

Etienne Simon-Loriere, Ousmane Faye, Oumar Faye, Lamine Koivogui, Nfaly Magassouba, Sakoba Keita, Jean-Michel Thiberge, Laure Diancourt, Christiane Bouchier, Matthias Vandenbogaert + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14612

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Cyanate as an energy source for nitrifiers p.105

The ammonia-oxidizing archaeon Nitrososphaera gargensis can utilize cyanate as the only source of energy for growth due to the presence of a cyanase enzyme, and cyanase-encoding nitrite-oxidizing bacteria can work together with cyanase-negative ammonia oxidizers to collectively grow on cyanate via reciprocal feeding; cyanases are widespread in the environment according to metagenomic data sets, pointing to the potential importance of cyanate in the nitrogen cycle.

Marton Palatinszky, Craig Herbold, Nico Jehmlich, Mario Pogoda, Ping Han, Martin von Bergen, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Søren M. Karst, Alexander Galushko, Hanna Koch + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14856

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A hemi-fission intermediate links two mechanistically distinct stages of membrane fission p.109

The GTPase dynamin provides the driving force for fission of membrane-bound vesicular structures; here, it is shown that dynamin-driven membrane fission proceeds in two mechanistically distinct stages that are separated by a metastable hemi-fission intermediate that requires GTP hydrolysis for progression to full fission.

Juha-Pekka Mattila, Anna V. Shnyrova, Anna C. Sundborger, Eva Rodriguez Hortelano, Marc Fuhrmans, Sylvia Neumann, Marcus Müller, Jenny E. Hinshaw, Sandra L. Schmid & Vadim A. Frolov

doi: 10.1038/nature14509

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CDA directs metabolism of epigenetic nucleosides revealing a therapeutic window in cancer p.114

Enzymes of the nucleotide salvage pathway are shown to have substrate selectivity that protects newly synthesized DNA from random incorporation of epigenetically modified forms of cytosine; a subset of cancer cell lines that overexpress cytidine deaminase (CDA) are sensitive to treatment with 5hmdC or 5fdC (oxidized forms of 5-methyl-cytosine), which leads to DNA damage and cell death, indicating the chemotherapeutic potential of these nucleoside variants for CDA-overexpressing cancers.

Melania Zauri, Georgina Berridge, Marie-Laëtitia Thézénas, Kathryn M. Pugh, Robert Goldin, Benedikt M. Kessler & Skirmantas Kriaucionis

doi: 10.1038/nature14948

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Protein synthesis by ribosomes with tethered subunits p.119

A ribosome with tethered subunits, ‘Ribo-T’, is engineered by making a hybrid RNA composed of ribosomal RNA of large and small subunits; Ribo-T can support cell growth in vivo in the absence of wild-type ribosomes, and is used to establish a fully orthogonal ribosome–mRNA system.

Cédric Orelle, Erik D. Carlson, Teresa Szal, Tanja Florin, Michael C. Jewett & Alexander S. Mankin

doi: 10.1038/nature14862

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