네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Tropical protection p.501

After years of talk, the palm-oil industry is looking into adopting environmental standards. Such rules must be strong, and need to be implemented.

doi: 10.1038/523501a

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Secret service p.501

Government labs should be subject to the same transparent oversight as academic facilities.

doi: 10.1038/523501b

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Realistic risks p.502

The communication of risk in disease outbreaks is too often neglected; that must change.

doi: 10.1038/523502a

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News

News Features

News & Views

Bypassing the methane cycle p.534

A genetically modified rice with more starch in its grains also provides fewer nutrients for methane-producing soil microbes. This dual benefit might help to meet the urgent need for globally sustainable food production. See Letter p.602

Paul L. E. Bodelier

doi: 10.1038/nature14633

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Movies of a growth mechanism p.535

A microscopy technique has been used to study the formation and growth of crystals of porous solids known as metal–organic frameworks in real time. The findings will aid the design of methods for making these useful compounds.

Krista S. Walton

doi: 10.1038/523535a

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Composite for energy storage takes the heat p.536

A polymer-based material has been discovered that breaks the rules — it has the right combination of properties for use in energy-storage devices called dielectric capacitors, and can function at high temperatures. See Letter p.576

Harry J. Ploehn

doi: 10.1038/523536a

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Arresting developments in receptor signalling p.538

The first crystal structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor in complex with an arrestin protein provides insight into how the signalling pathways activated by these receptors are switched off through desensitization. See Article p.561

Jeffrey L. Benovic

doi: 10.1038/nature14637

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Associations with depression p.539

Two genetic regions associated with major depressive disorder have been revealed for the first time, through whole-genome sequencing of a population of Han Chinese women. See Letter p.588

Patrick F. Sullivan

doi: 10.1038/nature14635

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Cataracts dissolved p.540

Mutations underlying hereditary cataracts in two families impair the function of an enzyme that synthesizes the lens molecule lanosterol. The finding may lead to non-surgical prevention and treatment of cataracts. See Letter p.607

J. Fielding Hejtmancik

doi: 10.1038/nature14629

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Harmonic radiation from crystals p.541

Electrons in a crystal can tunnel between energy bands when a strong electric field is switched on. It emerges that electron pathways interfere almost instantaneously, giving rise to ultra-short, pulsed emission of light. See Letter p.572

Peter Hommelhoff & Takuya Higuchi

doi: 10.1038/523541a

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Articles

Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years p.543

Ice-core and tree-ring data show that large volcanic eruptions in the tropics and high latitudes were primary drivers of temperature variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the past 2,500 years, firmly implicating such eruptions as catalysts in major sixth-century pandemics, famines, and socioeconomic disruptions.

M. Sigl, M. Winstrup, J. R. McConnell, K. C. Welten, G. Plunkett, F. Ludlow, U. Büntgen, M. Caffee, N. Chellman, D. Dahl-Jensen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14565

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Metabolic co-dependence gives rise to collective oscillations within biofilms p.550

The emergence of long-range metabolic co-dependence within a biofilm drives oscillations in growth that resolve a social conflict between cooperation and competition, thereby increasing community-level fitness against chemical attack.

Jintao Liu, Arthur Prindle, Jacqueline Humphries, Marçal Gabalda-Sagarra, Munehiro Asally, Dong-yeon D. Lee, San Ly, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo & Gürol M. Süel

doi: 10.1038/nature14660

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Biogenesis and structure of a type VI secretion membrane core complex p.555

The assembly, architecture and role of the bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) membrane core complex is presented.

Eric Durand, Van Son Nguyen, Abdelrahim Zoued, Laureen Logger, Gérard Péhau-Arnaudet, Marie-Stéphanie Aschtgen, Silvia Spinelli, Aline Desmyter, Benjamin Bardiaux, Annick Dujeancourt + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14667

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Crystal structure of rhodopsin bound to arrestin by femtosecond X-ray laser p.561

G protein-coupled receptors are a large family of signalling proteins that mediate cellular responses primarily via G proteins or arrestins, and they are targets of one-third of the current clinically used drugs; here, an active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin-1 is determined, revealing unique structural features that may constitute essential elements for arrestin-biased signalling.

Yanyong Kang, X. Edward Zhou, Xiang Gao, Yuanzheng He, Wei Liu, Andrii Ishchenko, Anton Barty, Thomas A. White, Oleksandr Yefanov, Gye Won Han + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14656

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Letters

Magnetospherically driven optical and radio aurorae at the end of the stellar main sequence p.568

Radio and optical spectroscopic observations of a brown dwarf reveal auroral emissions powered by magnetospheric currents, showing that aurorae may be a signature of magnetospheres much larger than those observed in our Solar System.

G. Hallinan, S. P. Littlefair, G. Cotter, S. Bourke, L. K. Harding, J. S. Pineda, R. P. Butler, A. Golden, G. Basri, J. G. Doyle + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14619

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Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation p.572

The generation of high harmonics in the solid phase is studied with time-resolved measurements and a quantum many-body theory; the underlying motion of electrons is found to differ from that observed during high-harmonic generation in atomic gases, and involves quantum interference between electrons from multiple valence bands.

M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, O. Schubert, M. Knorr, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira & R. Huber

doi: 10.1038/nature14652

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Flexible high-temperature dielectric materials from polymer nanocomposites p.576

The addition of boron nitride nanosheets to polymer nanocomposites creates dielectric materials that operate at much higher working temperatures than previous polymer dielectrics, as well as being flexible, lightweight, photopatternable, scalable and robust, which now makes them more attractive for electronic device applications than ceramic dielectrics.

Qi Li, Lei Chen, Matthew R. Gadinski, Shihai Zhang, Guangzu Zhang, Haoyu Li, Aman Haque, Long-Qing Chen, Tom Jackson & Qing Wang

doi: 10.1038/nature14647

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Onset of Antarctic Circumpolar Current 30 million years ago as Tasmanian Gateway aligned with westerlies p.580

Neodymium isotopes from fossil fish teeth and tectonic reconstructions show that the deep Tasmanian Gateway opened up about 33 million years ago and that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current arose 30 million years ago, when the gateway probably moved into the latitudes of the strong westerly winds.

Howie D. Scher, Joanne M. Whittaker, Simon E. Williams, Jennifer C. Latimer, Wendy E. C. Kordesch & Margaret L. Delaney

doi: 10.1038/nature14598

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Impermanence of dendritic spines in live adult CA1 hippocampus p.592

A new microendoscopic method reveals that hippocampal dendritic spines in the CA1 region undergo a complete turnover in less than six weeks in adult mice; this contrasts with the much greater stability of synapses in the neocortex and provides a physical basis for the fact that episodic memories are only retained by the mouse hippocampus for a few weeks.

Alessio Attardo, James E. Fitzgerald & Mark J. Schnitzer

doi: 10.1038/nature14467

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Parent stem cells can serve as niches for their daughter cells p.597

Little is known about how the relative proportions of stem cells and differentiated cells are regulated; basal stem/progenitor cells of the mouse airway epithelium self renew and differentiate into secretory and ciliated cells, and basal stem cells continuously send daughter cells a forward niche signal necessary for daughter cell fate maintenance.

Ana Pardo-Saganta, Purushothama Rao Tata, Brandon M. Law, Borja Saez, Ryan Dz-Wei Chow, Mythili Prabhu, Thomas Gridley & Jayaraj Rajagopal

doi: 10.1038/nature14553

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Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice p.602

Expression of a barley transcription factor SUSIBA2 in rice generates a plant with high-starch content and low-methane emissions by conferring a shift in the carbon flux that favours the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass rather than to the roots.

J. Su, C. Hu, X. Yan, Y. Jin, Z. Chen, Q. Guan, Y. Wang, D. Zhong, C. Jansson, F. Wang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14673

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Lanosterol reverses protein aggregation in cataracts p.607

Exploring the genetic basis of congenital cataracts in two families identifies a molecule, lanosterol, which prevents intracellular protein aggregation of various cataract-causing mutant crystallins, and which can reduce cataract severity and increase lens transparency in vivo in dogs.

Ling Zhao, Xiang-Jun Chen, Jie Zhu, Yi-Bo Xi, Xu Yang, Li-Dan Hu, Hong Ouyang, Sherrina H. Patel, Xin Jin, Danni Lin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14650

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Mitochondrial reticulum for cellular energy distribution in muscle p.617

Mitochondria are shown to form a conductive pathway throughout the cell in the form of a proton motive force, and throughout this network, mitochondrial protein localization seems to be varied, allowing optimized generation and utilization of the mitochondrial membrane potential; the rapid energy distribution network, which depends on conduction rather than diffusion, could explain how the muscle can rapidly respond to energy demands.

Brian Glancy, Lisa M. Hartnell, Daniela Malide, Zu-Xi Yu, Christian A. Combs, Patricia S. Connelly, Sriram Subramaniam & Robert S. Balaban

doi: 10.1038/nature14614

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Molecular basis for 5-carboxycytosine recognition by RNA polymerase II elongation complex p.621

Structural and biochemical studies of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) assembled on DNA containing 5-carboxycytosine reveals that Pol II can sense the oxidized methylation state of DNA and transiently slows down during transcription.

Lanfeng Wang, Yu Zhou, Liang Xu, Rui Xiao, Xingyu Lu, Liang Chen, Jenny Chong, Hairi Li, Chuan He, Xiang-Dong Fu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14482

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