Volume 521 Issue 7553



Scientists have a valuable part to play in clarifying the impacts of a proposed trade treaty between the United States and Europe.

doi: 10.1038/521393a


Sleeping-beauty papers offer hope that authors of uncited works are in good company.

doi: 10.1038/521394a


A package of articles in Nature assesses the state of artificial-intelligence research.

doi: 10.1038/521394b



Proposed deals have potential to boost research, but also to weaken health and environmental protections.

doi: 10.1038/521401a


From predatory microbes to toxic metals, nature is inspiring new ways to treat infections.

doi: 10.1038/521402a


Independent assessments of national climate plans find little common ground between wealthy and developing countries.

doi: 10.1038/521404a


Public-health officials make plans for how to speed up responses to tropical-disease outbreaks.

doi: 10.1038/521405a


Papers authored by Paolo Macchiarini misrepresented success of pioneering procedure.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17605

News Features


Long a staple of science fiction, laser weapons are edging closer to the battlefield — thanks to optical fibres.

doi: 10.1038/521408a


By revealing that fish cooperate, cheat and punish, Redouan Bshary has challenged ideas about brain evolution.

doi: 10.1038/521412a

News & Views


An evolutionary algorithm has been developed that allows robots to adapt to unforeseen change. The robots learn behaviours quickly and instinctively by mining the memory of their past achievements. See Letter p.503

doi: 10.1038/521426a


Proteins can be transported in either direction across a cellular organelle called the Golgi apparatus. It emerges that CDC42, a molecule that confers cell polarity, acts to control the directionality of transport in the Golgi. See Letter p.529

doi: 10.1038/nature14521


An index of water-circulation strength in the North Atlantic Ocean has been derived from sea-level measurements. This provides fresh evidence of the ocean's leading role in multidecadal climate variability. See Letter p.508

doi: 10.1038/521428a


Many people with cancer die from a wasting disorder called cancer-associated cachexia. Two studies in fruit flies show that inhibition of insulin signalling causes cachexia-like organ wasting.

doi: 10.1038/521430a


Modelling of the interactions between antibiotic production and antibiotic degradation reveals that these opposing activities are key to maintaining diversity in microbial communities. See Letter p.516

doi: 10.1038/nature14525


New hominin fossils discovered in Ethiopia, dated to between 3.5 million and 3.3 million years ago, suggest that species diversity may have been as high during early human evolution as in later periods. See Article p.483

doi: 10.1038/521432a



A new hominin species, Australopithecus deyiremeda, which lived between 3.5 and 3.3 million years ago, at around the same time as species such as Au. afarensis (‘Lucy’), is discovered in Ethiopia; its morphology suggests that some dental features traditionally associated with later genera such as Paranthropus and Homo emerged earlier than previously thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature14448


Whole-genome sequencing of tumour and germline DNA samples from 92 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer identifies frequent gene breakages that inactivate the tumour suppressors RB1, NF1, RAD51B and PTEN, and contribute to chemotherapy resistance; acquired resistance was associated with diverse mechanisms such as reversions of germline BRCA1/2 mutations and overexpression of the drug efflux pump MDR1.

doi: 10.1038/nature14410



Observations of a collision between two knots in the jet of nearby radio galaxy 3C 264 support the internal shock model of how the jet plasma is energized.

doi: 10.1038/nature14481


Intense light interacting with a thin film of silicon dioxide is used to generate broadband extreme ultraviolet radiation; the spectra reveal detailed information on the energy dispersion of the conduction band of silicon dioxide, which is at present inaccessible by conventional photoemission spectroscopy.

doi: 10.1038/nature14456


An intelligent trial-and-error learning algorithm is presented that allows robots to adapt in minutes to compensate for a wide variety of types of damage.

doi: 10.1038/nature14422


The circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, interpreted via the sea level gradient along the US coast, is found to respond to atmospheric drivers from the North Atlantic Oscillation, and in turn influences the oceanic temperature changes characterized by Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation; in this way, ocean circulation acts as the intermediary between atmospheric and ocean oscillations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14491


Exploring the relationship between population coupling and neuronal activity reveals that neighbouring neurons can differ in their coupling to the overall firing rate of the population, the circuitry of which may potentially help to explain the complex activity patterns in cortical populations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14273


Mathematical modelling and simulations reveal that including antibiotic degraders in ecological models of microbial species interaction allows the system to robustly move towards an intermixed stable state, more representative of real-world observations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14485


A forward genetic screen in fetal mice to identify genes involved in congenital heart disease (CHD) reveals that a large proportion of genes associated with CHD are related to cilia and cilia-transduced cell signalling, with potential implications for the human disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature14269


Mitophagy, a selective type of autophagy targeting mitochondria for degradation, interfaces with mitochondrial biogenesis to regulate mitochondrial content and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

doi: 10.1038/nature14300


The COPI complex, which has a role in retrograde transport through the Golgi, is shown to also mediate anterograde tubular transport through the Golgi; in response to external stimuli, the small GTPase CDC42 acts as an essential modulator of bidirectional Golgi transport, and promotes the sorting of cargoes destined for anterograde transport into the tubules at the expense of those targeted for retrograde transport.

doi: 10.1038/nature14457


The assembly of single Drosophila RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) is reconstituted using seven purified proteins, revealing that chaperones help stabilize the interaction of the protein heterodimer Dicer-2–R2D2 bound to the short interfering RNA with Ago2.

doi: 10.1038/nature14254


Appropriate repair of DNA lesions and the inhibition of DNA repair activities at telomeres are crucial to prevent genomic instability. By fuelling the generation of genetic alterations and by compromising cell viability, genomic instability is a driving force in cancer and ageing. Here we identify MAD2L2 (also known as MAD2B or REV7) through functional genetic screening as a novel factor controlling DNA repair activities at mammalian telomeres. We show that MAD2L2 accumulates at uncapped telomeres and promotes non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated fusion of deprotected chromosome ends and genomic instability. MAD2L2 depletion causes elongated 3′ telomeric overhangs, indicating that MAD2L2 inhibits 5′ end resection. End resection blocks NHEJ while committing to homology-directed repair, and is under the control of 53BP1, RIF1 and PTIP. Consistent with MAD2L2 promoting NHEJ-mediated telomere fusion by inhibiting 5′ end resection, knockdown of the nucleases CTIP or EXO1 partially restores telomere-driven genomic instability in MAD2L2-depleted cells. Control of DNA repair by MAD2L2 is not limited to telomeres. MAD2L2 also accumulates and inhibits end resection at irradiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks and promotes end-joining of DNA double-strand breaks in several settings, including during immunoglobulin class switch recombination. These activities of MAD2L2 depend on ATM kinase activity, RNF8, RNF168, 53BP1 and RIF1, but not on PTIP, REV1 and REV3, the latter two acting with MAD2L2 in translesion synthesis. Together, our data establish MAD2L2 as a crucial contributor to the control of DNA repair activity by 53BP1 that promotes NHEJ by inhibiting 5′ end resection downstream of RIF1.

doi: 10.1038/nature14216


Loss of REV7 is shown to regulate end resection of double-stranded DNA breaks in BRCA1-deficient cells, leading to PARP inhibitor resistance and restoration of homologous recombination; REV7 dictates pathway choice in BRCA1-deficient cells and during immunoglobulin class switching.

doi: 10.1038/nature14328


Cryo-electron microscopy determination of anthrax toxin protective antigen pore structure at a resolution of 2.9 Å, revealing the catalytic Φ-clamp and the membrane-spanning translocation channel.

doi: 10.1038/nature14247