네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Publish or perish p.259

Universities should release reports to show what they are doing to tackle misconduct — and funders should help them to do so effectively.

doi: 10.1038/521259a

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A patent problem p.259

Making lawsuits more risky for patent trolls is just one way to stop abuse of the system.

doi: 10.1038/521259b

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The kill switch p.260

Brain researchers and social scientists are well placed to find out what makes humans murder.

doi: 10.1038/521260a

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News

News Features

Blame it on the antibodies p.274

Antibodies are the workhorses of biological experiments, but they are littering the field with false findings. A few evangelists are pushing for change.

Monya Baker

doi: 10.1038/521274a

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News & Views

Tools go back in time p.294

The finding of 3.3-million-year-old stone flints, cores, hammers and anvils in Kenya suggests that the first stone tools were made by human ancestors that pre-dated the earliest known members of the genus Homo. See Article p.310

Erella Hovers

doi: 10.1038/521294a

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Squeezed ions in two places at once p.295

Experiments on a trapped calcium ion have again exposed the strange nature of quantum phenomena, and could pave the way for sensitive techniques to explore the boundary between the quantum and classical worlds. See Letter p.336

Tracy Northup

doi: 10.1038/521295a

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Asymmetric rejuvenation p.296

Organelles called mitochondria are asymmetrically apportioned to the daughters of dividing stem cells according to mitochondrial age. This finding sheds light on the mechanisms underlying asymmetric stem-cell division.

Anu Suomalainen

doi: 10.1038/521296a

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Magnetic alloys break the rules p.298

A family of alloys has been discovered that undergoes unexpected changes of shape when magnetized. This strange behaviour might help in unravelling the mystery of a phenomenon called magnetic hysteresis. See Letter p.340

Richard D. James

doi: 10.1038/521298a

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Equilibrium established p.299

Pluripotent cells can produce all cell types in the body. It emerges that this state of potential is endowed by cues, including inhibition of Wnt signalling, that maintain a balance between diverse cellular outcomes. See Article p.316

Kyle M. Loh & Bing Lim

doi: 10.1038/521299a

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Splicing does the two-step p.300

An intricate recursive RNA splicing mechanism that removes especially long introns (non-coding sequences) from genes has been found to be evolutionarily conserved and more prevalent than previously thought. See Letters p.371 & p.376

Heidi Cook-Andersen & Miles F. Wilkinson

doi: 10.1038/nature14524

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Review

The crystallography of correlated disorder p.303

Although classical crystallography is insufficient to determine disordered structure in crystals, correlated disorder does nevertheless contain clear crystallographic signatures that map to the type of disorder, which we are learning to decipher.

David A. Keen & Andrew L. Goodwin

doi: 10.1038/nature14453

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Articles

3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya p.310

Tool making has been considered to be an attribute of the genus Homo; this paper reports 3.3-million-year-old stone tools and the early timing of these tools provides evidence that the making and use of stone tools by hominins occurred before the evolution of our own genus.

Sonia Harmand, Jason E. Lewis, Craig S. Feibel, Christopher J. Lepre, Sandrine Prat, Arnaud Lenoble, Xavier Boës, Rhonda L. Quinn, Michel Brenet, Adrian Arroyo + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14464

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An alternative pluripotent state confers interspecies chimaeric competency p.316

A previously unknown type of stem cell that can engraft in specific regions of the mouse epiblast is described; these region-selective pluripotent stem cells display notable intra- and inter-specific chimaera competency and will help to further our understanding of mammalian development.

Jun Wu, Daiji Okamura, Mo Li, Keiichiro Suzuki, Chongyuan Luo, Li Ma, Yupeng He, Zhongwei Li, Chris Benner, Isao Tamura + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14413

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Neurotransmitter and psychostimulant recognition by the dopamine transporter p.322

Here the X-ray crystal structures of the Drosophila dopamine transporter bound to dopamine, D-amphetamine, methamphetamine and cocaine are solved; these structures show how a neurotransmitter, small molecule stimulants and cocaine bind to a biogenic amine transporter, and are examples of how the ligand binding site of a neurotransmitter transporter can remodel itself to accommodate structurally unrelated small molecules that are different in shape, size and polarity or charge.

Kevin H. Wang, Aravind Penmatsa & Eric Gouaux

doi: 10.1038/nature14431

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Letters

A strong ultraviolet pulse from a newborn type Ia supernova p.328

Observations of declining ultraviolet emission from a type Ia supernova within four days of the explosion are as expected if material ejected by the supernova collided with a companion star, supporting the single degenerate channel model of supernova progenitors.

doi: 10.1038/nature14440

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No signature of ejecta interaction with a stellar companion in three type Ia supernovae p.332

The explosion of a type Ia supernova could be triggered either by accretion from a companion—which should be indicated by brightening caused by interaction of supernova ejecta with the companion—or by a merger with a white dwarf or other small star; here observations by the Kepler mission of three type Ia supernovae reveal no such brightening, leading to the conclusion that they were triggered by a merger.

Rob P. Olling, Richard Mushotzky, Edward J. Shaya, Armin Rest, Peter M. Garnavich, Brad E. Tucker, Daniel Kasen, Steve Margheim & Alexei V. Filippenko

doi: 10.1038/nature14455

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Non-Joulian magnetostriction p.340

Typical ferromagnets elongate and contract anisotropically when placed in a magnetic field but conserve the overall volume, an effect known as Joule magnetostriction; here, a new effect is observed in Fe–Ga alloys—large non-volume-conserving or non-Joulian magnetostriction—which has not previously been observed in any magnet.

Harsh Deep Chopra & Manfred Wuttig

doi: 10.1038/nature14459

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Selection on noise constrains variation in a eukaryotic promoter p.344

Quantifying activity of cis-regulatory sequences controlling gene expression shows that selection on expression noise has a greater impact on sequence variation than selection on mean expression level.

Brian P. H. Metzger, David C. Yuan, Jonathan D. Gruber, Fabien Duveau & Patricia J. Wittkopp

doi: 10.1038/nature14244

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Signalling thresholds and negative B-cell selection in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia p.357

This study shows that, despite malignant transformation, autoimmune checkpoints are still functional in B-cell leukaemia, with targeted activation of these checkpoints effectively killing patient-derived B-cell leukaemia in a transplant model; the results represent a novel strategy to overcome drug resistance in leukaemia patients.

Zhengshan Chen, Seyedmehdi Shojaee, Maike Buchner, Huimin Geng, Jae Woong Lee, Lars Klemm, Björn Titz, Thomas G. Graeber, Eugene Park, Ying Xim Tan + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14231

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Lipid nanoparticle siRNA treatment of Ebola-virus-Makona-infected nonhuman primates p.362

Ebola-virus-targeting short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles are adapted to the current outbreak strain of the virus, and the siRNA cocktail is shown to protect nonhuman primates fully when administered 3 days after challenge with the current West African Ebola virus isolate; upon viral sequence data availability, the drug can be adapted to the new virus and produced in as little as 8 weeks.

Emily P. Thi, Chad E. Mire, Amy C. H. Lee, Joan B. Geisbert, Joy Z. Zhou, Krystle N. Agans, Nicholas M. Snead, Daniel J. Deer, Trisha R. Barnard, Karla A. Fenton + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14442

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Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice p.366

An analysis of mouse skin reveals that super-enhancers are critical to identity, lineage commitment and plasticity of adult stem cells; dynamic super-enhancer remodelling in new niches is dependent on the levels of pioneer transcription factor SOX9, which is identified as a key regulator of super-enhancer chromatin for hair follicle stem cells.

Rene C. Adam, Hanseul Yang, Shira Rockowitz, Samantha B. Larsen, Maria Nikolova, Daniel S. Oristian, Lisa Polak, Meelis Kadaja, Amma Asare, Deyou Zheng + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14289

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Recursive splicing in long vertebrate genes p.371

Highly conserved recursive splice sites are identified in vertebrates, particularly within long genes encoding proteins that are involved in neuronal development; analysis of the splicing mechanism reveals that such recursive splicing sites can be used to dictate different mRNA isoforms.

Christopher R. Sibley, Warren Emmett, Lorea Blazquez, Ana Faro, Nejc Haberman, Michael Briese, Daniah Trabzuni, Mina Ryten, Michael E. Weale, John Hardy + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14466

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Genome-wide identification of zero nucleotide recursive splicing in Drosophila p.376

In flies, some introns contain internal splice sites that cause ‘recursive splicing’, a multi-step removal of a single intron; this study demonstrates that the scope of this regulatory mechanism is much more extensive in flies than had been appreciated, and provides details about the recursive splicing process.

Michael O. Duff, Sara Olson, Xintao Wei, Sandra C. Garrett, Ahmad Osman, Mohan Bolisetty, Alex Plocik, Susan E. Celniker & Brenton R. Graveley

doi: 10.1038/nature14475

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