네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Challenging times p.125

A European initiative to ban animal research has galvanized resistance.

doi: 10.1038/521125b

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A nation with ambition p.125

India is making great strides in improving its science, but it needs to look carefully at its approach and work with the rest of the world if it is to realize its full potential.

doi: 10.1038/521125a

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Polls apart p.126

The UK voter opinion polls show that an anomalous answer can be the correct one.

doi: 10.1038/521126a

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News

Ebola failures prompt WHO rethink p.137

Health agency’s annual meeting will address shortcomings in outbreak response highlighted by West Africa crisis.

Erika Check Hayden

doi: 10.1038/521137a

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News Features

Science in India p.141

A special issue explores the enormous potential and major challenges for research in south Asia's superpower.

doi: 10.1038/521141a

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The anti-bureaucrat p.148

K. VijayRaghavan is determined to cut through red tape and build up biological science in India.

Apoorva Mandavilli

doi: 10.1038/521148a

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News & Views

The slow death of red galaxies p.164

For most galaxies, the shutdown of star formation was a slow process that took 4 billion years. An analysis of some 27,000 galaxies suggests that 'strangulation' by their environment was the most likely cause. See Letter p.192

Andrea Cattaneo

doi: 10.1038/521164a

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Internal compass puts flies in their place p.165

An analysis reveals that fruit-fly neurons orient flies relative to cues in the insects' environment, providing evidence that the fly's brain contains a key component for drawing a cognitive map of the insect's surroundings. See Article p.186

Thomas R. Clandinin & Lisa M. Giocomo

doi: 10.1038/521165a

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Fungus against the wall p.168

A compound derived from plant cell-wall material that is a waste product of biofuel manufacture has been found to have fungicidal properties: it interacts with a carbohydrate called β1,3 glucan, thus compromising the integrity of fungal cells.

Paul O'Maille

doi: 10.1038/521168a

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Steps on the road to eukaryotes p.169

A new archaeal phylum represents the closest known relatives of eukaryotes, the group encompassing all organisms that have nucleated cells. The discovery holds promise for a better understanding of eukaryotic origins.

T. Martin Embley & Tom A. Williams

doi: 10.1038/nature14522

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Rap and chirp about X inactivation p.170

Two new techniques identify proteins that directly interact with a non-protein-coding RNA called Xist to mediate inactivation of one X chromosome in female mammals. See Letter p.232

Anna Roth & Sven Diederichs

doi: 10.1038/521170a

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Articles

Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes p.173

This study identifies a clade of archaea that is the immediate sister group of eukaryotes in phylogenetic analyses, and that also has a repertoire of proteins otherwise characteristic of eukaryotes—proteins that would have provided the first eukaryotes with a ‘starter kit’ for the genomic and cellular complexity characteristic of the eukaryotic cell.

Anja Spang, Jimmy H. Saw, Steffen L. Jørgensen, Katarzyna Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Joran Martijn, Anders E. Lind, Roel van Eijk, Christa Schleper, Lionel Guy & Thijs J. G. Ettema

doi: 10.1038/nature14447

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Neurons for hunger and thirst transmit a negative-valence teaching signal p.180

Cell-type-specific electrical activity manipulations and deep-brain imaging in mice of neuronal populations associated with homeostasis of nutrient or fluid intake reveals that learning is conditioned by a negative-valence signal from the hunger-mediating AGRP neurons and also from the thirst-mediating neurons in the subfornical organ.

J. Nicholas Betley, Shengjin Xu, Zhen Fang Huang Cao, Rong Gong, Christopher J. Magnus, Yang Yu & Scott M. Sternson

doi: 10.1038/nature14416

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Neural dynamics for landmark orientation and angular path integration p.186

Calcium imaging of the brain of tethered flies walking in a virtual reality arena showed that a population of neurons with dendrites that tile the ‘ellipsoid body’ use information from visual landmarks and the fly's own rotation to compute heading; this suggests insects possess neurons with similarities to ‘head direction cells’ known to contribute to spatial navigation in mammalian brains.

Johannes D. Seelig & Vivek Jayaraman

doi: 10.1038/nature14446

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Letters

Electron pairing without superconductivity p.196

Evidence is presented for electron pairing in strontium titanate far above the superconducting transition temperature; such pairs are thought to be the long-sought pre-formed pairs that condense at lower temperatures to give rise to the unconventional superconducting state in this system.

Guanglei Cheng, Michelle Tomczyk, Shicheng Lu, Joshua P. Veazey, Mengchen Huang, Patrick Irvin, Sangwoo Ryu, Hyungwoo Lee, Chang-Beom Eom, C. Stephen Hellberg + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14398

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Quantum coherent optical phase modulation in an ultrafast transmission electron microscope p.200

The coherent manipulation of electron quantum states using light, commonly employed in atoms and molecules, is extended to the case of free electron beams using ultrafast transmission electron microscopy; this approach may enable a range of applications in ultrafast electron imaging and spectroscopy down to attosecond precision.

Armin Feist, Katharina E. Echternkamp, Jakob Schauss, Sergey V. Yalunin, Sascha Schäfer & Claus Ropers

doi: 10.1038/nature14463

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Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion p.204

Particulate organic carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere is primarily controlled by physical erosion, and tectonic and climatic forcing of physical erosion may favour biospheric particulate organic carbon sequestration over silicate weathering as a long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide sink.

Valier Galy, Bernhard Peucker-Ehrenbrink & Timothy Eglinton

doi: 10.1038/nature14400

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Multi-omics of permafrost, active layer and thermokarst bog soil microbiomes p.208

A multi-omics approach, integrating metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics, determines the phylogenetic composition of the microbial community and assesses its functional potential and activity along a thaw transition from intact permafrost to thermokast bog.

Jenni Hultman, Mark P. Waldrop, Rachel Mackelprang, Maude M. David, Jack McFarland, Steven J. Blazewicz, Jennifer Harden, Merritt R. Turetsky, A. David McGuire, Manesh B. Shah + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14238

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Pathogen-secreted proteases activate a novel plant immune pathway p.213

In Arabidopsis thaliana, pathogen-secreted proteases trigger a previously unknown defence response involving heterotrimeric G-protein complexes upstream of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade.

Zhenyu Cheng, Jian-Feng Li, Yajie Niu, Xue-Cheng Zhang, Owen Z. Woody, Yan Xiong, Slavica Djonović, Yves Millet, Jenifer Bush, Brendan J. McConkey + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14243

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YAP is essential for tissue tension to ensure vertebrate 3D body shape p.217

D’Arcy Thompson predicted a century ago that animal body shape is conditioned by gravity, but there has been no animal model to study how cellular forces are coordinated to generate body shapes that withstand gravity; the hirame medaka fish mutant, with pronounced body flattening, reveals how the hirame/YAP gene controls gravity-resisting cellular forces to produce complex 3D organs and body shapes.

Sean Porazinski, Huijia Wang, Yoichi Asaoka, Martin Behrndt, Tatsuo Miyamoto, Hitoshi Morita, Shoji Hata, Takashi Sasaki, S. F. Gabriel Krens, Yumi Osada + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14215

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Clinical improvement in psoriasis with specific targeting of interleukin-23 p.222

A proof-of-concept phase I clinical trial demonstrates that targeting interleukin (IL)-23 with an antibody that binds to the p19 subunit leads to clinical improvement of disease in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.

Tamara Kopp, Elisabeth Riedl, Christine Bangert, Edward P. Bowman, Elli Greisenegger, Ann Horowitz, Harald Kittler, Wendy M. Blumenschein, Terrill K. McClanahan, Thomas Marbury + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14175

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Nuclear architecture dictates HIV-1 integration site selection p.227

HIV-1 integration into the host cell genome occurs in the outer shell of the nucleus in close correspondence with the nuclear pore, in which a series of cellular genes are preferentially targeted by the virus.

Bruna Marini, Attila Kertesz-Farkas, Hashim Ali, Bojana Lucic, Kamil Lisek, Lara Manganaro, Sandor Pongor, Roberto Luzzati, Alessandra Recchia, Fulvio Mavilio + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14226

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The Xist lncRNA interacts directly with SHARP to silence transcription through HDAC3 p.232

The mechanisms by which Xist, a long non-coding RNA, silences one X chromosome in female mammals are unknown; here a mass spectrometry-based approach is developed to identify several proteins that interact directly with Xist, including the transcriptional repressor SHARP that is required for transcriptional silencing through the histone deacetylase HDAC3.

Colleen A. McHugh, Chun-Kan Chen, Amy Chow, Christine F. Surka, Christina Tran, Patrick McDonel, Amy Pandya-Jones, Mario Blanco, Christina Burghard, Annie Moradian + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14443

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Horizontal membrane-intrinsic α-helices in the stator a-subunit of an F-type ATP synthase p.237

ATP, the universal energy currency of cells, is produced by F-type ATP synthases, which are ancient, membrane-bound nanomachines. F-type ATP synthases use the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical gradient to generate ATP by rotary catalysis. Protons moving across the membrane drive a rotor ring composed of 8–15 c-subunits. A central stalk transmits the rotation of the c-ring to the catalytic F1 head, where a series of conformational changes results in ATP synthesis. A key unresolved question in this fundamental process is how protons pass through the membrane to drive ATP production. Mitochondrial ATP synthases form V-shaped homodimers in cristae membranes. Here we report the structure of a native and active mitochondrial ATP synthase dimer, determined by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy at 6.2 Å resolution. Our structure shows four long, horizontal membrane-intrinsic α-helices in the a-subunit, arranged in two hairpins at an angle of approximately 70° relative to the c-ring helices. It has been proposed that a strictly conserved membrane-embedded arginine in the a-subunit couples proton translocation to c-ring rotation. A fit of the conserved carboxy-terminal a-subunit sequence places the conserved arginine next to a proton-binding c-subunit glutamate. The map shows a slanting solvent-accessible channel that extends from the mitochondrial matrix to the conserved arginine. Another hydrophilic cavity on the lumenal membrane surface defines a direct route for the protons to an essential histidine–glutamate pair. Our results provide unique new insights into the structure and function of rotary ATP synthases and explain how ATP production is coupled to proton translocation.

Matteo Allegretti, Niklas Klusch, Deryck J. Mills, Janet Vonck, Werner Kühlbrandt & Karen M. Davies

doi: 10.1038/nature14185

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