네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Splice of life p.5

Researchers, bioethicists and regulators must contribute to transparent disscussions on the risks and ethics of editing human embryos.

doi: 10.1038/521005a

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Dirty money p.6

The fossil-fuel divestment campaign raises important questions but offers few solutions.

doi: 10.1038/521006a

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Greek cash grab p.6

Government’s decision to plunder university funds shows lack of respect for science.

doi: 10.1038/521006b

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News

News Features

Africa’s fight for equality p.24

After years of second-class status in research partnerships, African scientists are calling for change.

Linda Nordling

doi: 10.1038/521024a

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News & Views

Beauty varies with the light p.34

Experimental work on guppies suggests that variation in light between microhabitats is what makes females prefer different male signal combinations, thus explaining the evolution and persistence of colour variation in males.

Ole Seehausen

doi: 10.1038/521034a

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Antibodies regulate antitumour immunity p.35

Boosting the T cells that mediate anticancer immune responses is a therapeutic goal. But T cells do not work alone — B cells and the antibodies they produce can both trigger and suppress the response. See Letters p.94 & p.99

Laurence Zitvogel & Guido Kroemer

doi: 10.1038/nature14388

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Nanoscale connections for brain-like circuits p.37

Tiny circuit elements called memristors have been used as connections in an artificial neural network – enabling the system to learn to recognize letters of the alphabet from imperfect images. See Letter p.61

Robert Legenstein

doi: 10.1038/521037a

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Tasteless pesticides affect bees in the field p.38

Two studies provide evidence that bees cannot taste or avoid neonicotinoid pesticides, and that exposure to treated crops affects reproduction in solitary bees as well as bumblebee colony growth and reproduction. See Letters p.74 & p.77

Nigel E. Raine & Richard J. Gill

doi: 10.1038/nature14391

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Dinosaur up in the air p.40

A new feathered dinosaur from China, belonging to an obscure and strange carnivorous group, bears a seemingly bony wrist structure that may have had a role in flight. See Letter p.70

Kevin Padian

doi: 10.1038/nature14392

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Organic polymers form fuel from water p.41

Porous polymers have joined the ranks of light-activated catalysts that split water into hydrogen, a carbon-free alternative to fossil fuels. Their properties are easily tuned — a big plus for the development of practically useful catalysts.

Vijay S. Vyas & Bettina V. Lotsch

doi: 10.1038/521041a

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Articles

Sequential cancer mutations in cultured human intestinal stem cells p.43

Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, up to four frequently occurring colorectal cancer mutations were introduced alone or in combination into stem cell organoids derived from human small intestinal or colon tissue, allowing an in-depth investigation of the contribution of these mutations to cancer progression.

Jarno Drost, Richard H. van Jaarsveld, Bas Ponsioen, Cheryl Zimberlin, Ruben van Boxtel, Arjan Buijs, Norman Sachs, René M. Overmeer, G. Johan Offerhaus, Harry Begthel + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14415

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Structural basis for Na+ transport mechanism by a light-driven Na+ pump p.48

Hideaki E. Kato, Keiichi Inoue, Rei Abe-Yoshizumi, Yoshitaka Kato, Hikaru Ono, Masae Konno, Shoko Hososhima, Toru Ishizuka, Mohammad Razuanul Hoque, Hirofumi Kunitomo + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14322

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Letters

Curtain eruptions from Enceladus’ south-polar terrain p.57

Observations of the south pole of the Saturnian moon Enceladus revealed large rifts in the terrain that were found to be the sources of the observed jets of water vapour; now it is shown that much of the eruptive activity can be explained by broad, curtain-like eruptions, many of which were probably misinterpreted previously as discrete jets.

Joseph N. Spitale, Terry A. Hurford, Alyssa R. Rhoden, Emily E. Berkson & Symeon S. Platts

doi: 10.1038/nature14368

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Training and operation of an integrated neuromorphic network based on metal-oxide memristors p.61

A transistor-free metal-oxide memristor crossbar with low device variability is realised and trained to perform a simple classification task, opening the way to integrated neuromorphic networks of a complexity comparable to that of the human brain, with high operational speed and manageable power dissipation.

M. Prezioso, F. Merrikh-Bayat, B. D. Hoskins, G. C. Adam, K. K. Likharev & D. B. Strukov

doi: 10.1038/nature14441

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The formation and fate of internal waves in the South China Sea p.65

Internal oceanic waves are subsurface gravity waves that can be enormous and travel thousands of kilometres before breaking but they are difficult to study; here observations of such waves in the South China Sea reveal their formation mechanism, extreme turbulence, relationship to the Kuroshio Current and energy budget.

Matthew H. Alford, Thomas Peacock, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, Jonathan D. Nash, Maarten C. Buijsman, Luca R. Centuroni, Shenn-Yu Chao, Ming-Huei Chang, David M. Farmer, Oliver B. Fringer + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14399

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A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran theropod with preserved evidence of membranous wings p.70

A recently discovered fossil belonging to the Scansoriopterygidae, a group of bizarre dinosaurs closely related to birds, represents a new scansoriopterygid species and preserves evidence of a membranous aerodynamic surface very different from a classic avian wing.

Xing Xu, Xiaoting Zheng, Corwin Sullivan, Xiaoli Wang, Lida Xing, Yan Wang, Xiaomei Zhang, Jingmai K. O’Connor, Fucheng Zhang & Yanhong Pan

doi: 10.1038/nature14423

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Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides p.74

It has been suggested that the negative effects on bees of neonicotinoid pesticides could be averted in field conditions if they chose not to forage on treated nectar; here field-level neonicotinoid doses are used in laboratory experiments to show that honeybees and bumblebees do not avoid neonicotinoid-treated food and instead actually prefer it.

Sébastien C. Kessler, Erin Jo Tiedeken, Kerry L. Simcock, Sophie Derveau, Jessica Mitchell, Samantha Softley, Jane C. Stout & Geraldine A. Wright

doi: 10.1038/nature14414

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Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees p.77

Neonicotinoid seed coating is associated with reduced density of wild bees, as well as reduced nesting of solitary bees and reduced colony growth and reproduction of bumblebees, but appears not to affect honeybees.

Maj Rundlöf, Georg K. S. Andersson, Riccardo Bommarco, Ingemar Fries, Veronica Hederström, Lina Herbertsson, Ove Jonsson, Björn K. Klatt, Thorsten R. Pedersen, Johanna Yourstone + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14420

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Differential DNA mismatch repair underlies mutation rate variation across the human genome p.81

An analysis of how regional mutation rates vary across 652 tumours identifies variable DNA mismatch repair as the basis of the characteristic regional variation in mutation rates seen across the human genome; the results show that differential DNA repair, rather than differential mutation supply, is likely to be the primary cause of this variation.

Fran Supek & Ben Lehner

doi: 10.1038/nature14173

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A direct GABAergic output from the basal ganglia to frontal cortex p.85

Anatomical and functional analyses reveal the existence of two types of globus pallidus externus neurons that directly control cortex, suggesting a pathway by which dopaminergic drugs used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders may act in the basal ganglia to modulate cortex.

Arpiar Saunders, Ian A. Oldenburg, Vladimir K. Berezovskii, Caroline A. Johnson, Nathan D. Kingery, Hunter L. Elliott, Tiao Xie, Charles R. Gerfen & Bernardo L. Sabatini

doi: 10.1038/nature14179

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Vertically transmitted faecal IgA levels determine extra-chromosomal phenotypic variation p.90

Microbially driven dichotomous faecal immunoglobulin-A levels in wild-type mice within the same facility mimic the effects of chromosomal mutations, indicating that phenotypic comparisons between mice must take into account the non-chromosomal hereditary variation between different breeders.

Clara Moon, Megan T. Baldridge, Meghan A. Wallace, Carey-Ann D. Burnham, Herbert W. Virgin & Thaddeus S. Stappenbeck

doi: 10.1038/nature14139

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Immunosuppressive plasma cells impede T-cell-dependent immunogenic chemotherapy p.94

IgA plasmocytes are shown to promote resistance to the immunogenic chemotherapeutic oxaliplatin in prostate cancer mouse models by inhibiting activation of cytotoxic T cells; immunosuppressive plasma cells, which are also found in human-therapy-resistant prostate cancer, are generated in response to TGFβ, and their functionality depends on PD-L1 expression and IL-10 secretion.

Shabnam Shalapour, Joan Font-Burgada, Giuseppe Di Caro, Zhenyu Zhong, Elsa Sanchez-Lopez, Debanjan Dhar, Gerald Willimsky, Massimo Ammirante, Amy Strasner, Donna E. Hansel + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14395

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Allogeneic IgG combined with dendritic cell stimuli induce antitumour T-cell immunity p.99

Naturally occurring tumour-binding IgG antibodies are shown to initiate the rejection of allogeneic tumours, whereby Fc-receptor-mediated uptake of tumour immune complexes into dendritic cells activates tumour-reactive T cells, and intra-tumoral injection of allogeneic IgG together with dendritic cell adjuvants induces systemic T-cell-mediated antitumour responses.

Yaron Carmi, Matthew H. Spitzer, Ian L. Linde, Bryan M. Burt, Tyler R. Prestwood, Nicola Perlman, Matthew G. Davidson, Justin A. Kenkel, Ehud Segal, Ganesh V. Pusapati + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14424

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