Volume 519 Number 7543

Editorials

A clean, green science machine p.261

As the world warms and technology improves, researchers and institutions should look at their carbon footprints and question whether they really need to travel to academic conferences.

doi: 10.1038/519261a

Hollow humour p.261

The public’s distorted attitude towards mental-health conditions hampers their treatment.

doi: 10.1038/519261b

Strike a chord p.262

The latest episode of the Nature Audiofile podcast looks at how music inspires science.

doi: 10.1038/519262a

News

News Features

The myopia boom p.276

Short-sightedness is reaching epidemic proportions. Some scientists think they have found a reason why.

doi: 10.1038/519276a

Eyes on the ocean p.280

Daniel Pauly is sounding the alarm over global fish harvests, but others think he is making too much noise.

doi: 10.1038/519280a

News & Views

Cooperative carbon capture p.294

Enzymes bind carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in a highly precise way, whereas synthetic materials just passively adsorb it. Or do they? A study of compounds called metal–organic frameworks now challenges this picture. See Article p.303

doi: 10.1038/nature14212

Signs of saturation in the tropical carbon sink p.295

The carbon sink in the land biosphere has grown during the past 30 years, taking up much of the carbon dioxide produced by human activities. The first signs of this growth levelling off have been spotted in Amazon forests. See Letter p.344

doi: 10.1038/519295a

Hot on the trail of temperature processing p.296

Two studies investigate how information about temperature is processed in the brains of fruit flies, and reveal that different neuronal pathways transmit heating and cooling signals to higher brain regions. See Letters p.353 & p.358

doi: 10.1038/nature14209

Better luminescent solar panels in prospect p.298

Devices known as luminescent solar concentrators could find use as renewable-energy generators, but have so far been plagued by a major light-reabsorption effect. A new study offers a promising route to tackling this problem.

doi: 10.1038/519298a

Spotlight on deep-brain stimulation p.299

Taking inspiration from a modern technological advance, a classic technique — low-frequency electrical stimulation of a deep-brain region — has been refined to combat cocaine addiction in experiments in mice.

doi: 10.1038/519299a

Dendritic-cell vaccines on the move p.300

Vaccines that induce an antitumour immune response are disappointingly ineffective in treating patients with cancer. Pre-conditioning the vaccination site to induce inflammation might provide a way to improve this therapy. See Letter p.366

doi: 10.1038/nature14211

Articles

The fine-scale genetic structure of the British population p.309

Extensive genetic analysis of over 2,000 individuals from different locations in Britain reveals striking fine-scale patterns of population structure; comparisons with similar genetic data from the European continent reveal the legacy of earlier population migrations and information about the ancestry of current populations in specific geographic regions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14230

Letters

A dusty, normal galaxy in the epoch of reionization p.327

Far-infrared measurements of galaxies in the early Universe would reveal their detailed properties, but have been lacking for the more typical galaxies where most stars form; here an archetypal, early Universe star-forming galaxy is detected at far-infrared wavelengths, allowing its dust mass, total star-formation rate and dust-to-gas ratio to be calculated.

doi: 10.1038/nature14164

Polyploidy can drive rapid adaptation in yeast p.349

In vitro evolution experiments on haploid, diploid, and tetraploid yeast strains show that adaptation is faster in tetraploids, providing direct quantitative evidence that in some environments polyploidy can accelerate evolutionary adaptation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14187

Thermosensory processing in the Drosophila brain p.353

The mechanisms of thermosensing in the Drosophila brain are elucidated by the identification of distinct classes of projection neurons which are excited either by external cooling or warming, or both; the neurons that are excited by warming participate in complex circuits that incorporate crossover inhibition from cool receptor neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature14170

Temperature representation in the Drosophila brain p.358

This study identifies distinct classes of neurons in the fly brain, which respond to external cooling, warming, or both, and contribute to behavioural response; the results illustrate how higher brain centres extract a stimulus’ quality, intensity and timing from a simple temperature map at the periphery.

doi: 10.1038/nature14284

CetZ tubulin-like proteins control archaeal cell shape p.362

The structure and function of CetZ, a protein related to both tubulin and FtsZ (the bacterial homologue of tubulin) from the archaeon Haloferax volcano, is reported and its involvement in the control of cell shape uncovered; it appears that this family of proteins was involved in the control of cell shape long before the evolution of eukaryotes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13983

Tetanus toxoid and CCL3 improve dendritic cell vaccines in mice and glioblastoma patients p.366

A clinical trial in patients with glioblastoma shows increased immune and anti-tumour responses to dendritic cell vaccination after pre-conditioning the site of vaccination with tetanus toxoid (Td); similar results are also seen in mice in part due to the actions of the chemokine CCL3, and the findings may represent new ways to improve the efficacy of anti-cancer vaccines.

doi: 10.1038/nature14320